The time series of daily total solar irradiance (TSI) presented here for March 1, 2000 onwards
is based primarily on Version-15 data from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE).
The time series is provided
Steps outlined below are used to put together the above time series, extended beyond the period covered by SORCE data.
The time series is updated every 2 months.
- SORCE data are used for the period 25Feb2003 to 30Jun2013. The SORCE data stream was interrupted in mid-July
2013 because of a battery problem on the instrument.
- TSI data for the period prior to 25Feb2003 came from Dr. Greg Kopp of LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder,
who had extracted it from a composite dataset from the World Radiation Center (WRC), Davos. The file used,
"composite_d41_62_0906.dat" was downloaded from the ftp site: ftp://ftp.pmodwrc.ch/pub/data/irradiance/composite.
Dr. Kopp had offset WRC-Composite time series to match with the SORCE version available at the time (V-09).
We offset the WRC-Composite time series further to match with SORCE V-15 data following the procedure suggested
by Dr. Kopp. According to this procedure, the offset between the SORCE time series and another one is determined
by comparing the two time series for the period 25Feb2003 to 31Dec2003.
- The period between 30Jun2013 and 31Oct2014 is covered using a composite dataset available from the
Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB). This portion of the RMIB time series (01Jul2013 onwards)
is also offset to match SORCE V-15 data. In this case, the offset is determined over a 5-year period (01Mar2003 - 29Feb2008) as:
Mean of SORCE V15 - Mean of RMIB
- The period beyond 01Nov2014 is covered using SORCE V-17, which has been operating in hybrid mode beginning
in March 5, 2014. This portion of the SORCE time series (01Nov2014 onwards) is also offset to match SORCE V-15 data.
Similarly, the offset is determined over a 5-year period (01Mar2003 - 29Feb2008) as:
Mean of SORCE V15 - Mean of SORCE V17
- Finally, the four portions described above are appended end-to-end to produce the entire time series.
For the methodology of the RMIB composite construction:
Mekaoui, S., and S. Dewitte (2008),
Total Solar Irradiance Measurement and Modelling during Cycle 23
Solar Physics, 247, 203-216,
For the DIARAD/VIRGO dataset:
Dewitte, S., D. Crommelynck, and A. Joukoff (2004),
Total solar irradiance observations from DIARAD/VIRGO
Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, A02102,
For the absolute level:
Dewitte, S., E. Janssen, and S. Mekaoui (2013),
Science results from the Sova-Picard total solar irradiance instrument
AIP Conference Proceedings, 1531, 688-691,
S. Dewitte, S. Nevens (2016),
The Total Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record
Astrophysical Journal, 830:25.
S. Dewitte, N. Clerbaux, (2017),
Measurement of the Earth Radiation Budget at the Top of the Atmosphere- A Review
Remote Sensing, 9(11), 1143.
CERES Data Product Information
Loeb, Norman G.; Priestley, Kory J.; Kratz, David P.; Geier, Erika B.; Green, Richard N.; Wielicki, Bruce A.;
Hinton, Patricia O’Rawe; Nolan, Sandra K.
Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument
Journal of Applied Meteorology, 40(4), 822-835.
Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Loukachine, Konstantin; Manalo-Smith, Natividad
Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the
Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part I: Methodology
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22(4), 338-351.
Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Manalo-Smith, N.; Doelling, D. R.
Angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux estimation from the Clouds and the
Earth's Radiant Energy System instrument on the Terra satellite. Part II: Validation
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 24(4), 564-584.
Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Young, D.F.; Heck, P.W.; Garber, D.P.; Chen, Yan; Spangenberg, D.A.; Arduini, R.F.;
Trepte, Q.Z.; Smith, W.L.; Ayers, J.K.; Gibson, S.C.; Miller, W.F.; Hong, G.; Chakrapani, V.; Takano, Y.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Xie, Yu; Yang, Ping
CERES Edition-2 Cloud Property Retrievals Using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS Data #x2014;Part I: Algorithms
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 49(11), 4374-4400.