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Dr. Seiji Kato

Dr. Seiji Kato

The Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) working group is responsible for estimating surface and in atmosphere radiation budgets. In atmosphere and surface radiative fluxes are computed with radiative transfer models using cloud and aerosol properties derived from satellite observations. Temperature and humidity profiles used in the estimate, which come from reanalysis products produced by NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, are consistent with those used in cloud property retrievals and by other working groups. The goal of the working group is to provide surface and in atmosphere radiation budgets that are consistent with observations.

Contact Information

NASA Langley Research Center
Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199

Phone: 757-864-7066

Fax: 757-864-7996



Awards, Honors, and Positions



Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Miller, Walter F.; Scott, Ryan C.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, Y. Chen, W. F. Miller, R. C. Scott, 2022: Combining Cloud Properties from CALIPSO, CloudSat, and MODIS for Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Shortwave Broadband Irradiance Computations: Impact of Cloud Vertical Profiles. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 61(10), 1449-1471. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0260.1. Abstract Cloud vertical profile measurements from the CALIPSO and CloudSat active sensors are used to improve top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW) broadband (BB) irradiance computations. The active sensor measurements, which occasionally miss parts of the cloud columns because of the full attenuation of sensor signals, surface clutter, or insensitivity to a certain range of cloud particle sizes, are adjusted using column-integrated cloud optical depth derived from the passive MODIS sensor. Specifically, we consider two steps in generating cloud profiles from multiple sensors for irradiance computations. First, cloud extinction coefficient and cloud effective radius (CER) profiles are merged using available active and passive measurements. Second, the merged cloud extinction profiles are constrained by the MODIS visible scaled cloud optical depth, defined as a visible cloud optical depth multiplied by (1 − asymmetry parameter), to compensate for missing cloud parts by active sensors. It is shown that the multisensor-combined cloud profiles significantly reduce positive TOA SW BB biases, relative to those with MODIS-derived cloud properties only. The improvement is more pronounced for optically thick clouds, where MODIS ice CER is largely underestimated. Within the SW BB (0.18–4 μm), the 1.04–1.90-μm spectral region is mainly affected by the CER, where both the cloud absorption and solar incoming irradiance are considerable. Significance Statement The purpose of this study is to improve shortwave irradiance computations at the top of the atmosphere by using combined cloud properties from active and passive sensor measurements. Relative to the simulation results with passive sensor cloud measurements only, the combined cloud profiles provide more accurate shortwave simulation results. This is achieved by more realistic profiles of cloud extinction coefficient and cloud particle effective radius. The benefit is pronounced for optically thick clouds composed of large ice particles.
Loeb, Norman G.; Mayer, Michael; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Zuo, Hao; Senan, Retish; Lyman, John M.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Balmaseda, MagdalenaLoeb, N. G., M. Mayer, S. Kato, J. T. Fasullo, H. Zuo, R. Senan, J. M. Lyman, G. C. Johnson, M. Balmaseda, 2022: Evaluating Twenty-Year Trends in Earth's Energy Flows From Observations and Reanalyses. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(12), e2022JD036686. doi: 10.1029/2022JD036686. Satellite, reanalysis, and ocean in situ data are analyzed to evaluate regional, hemispheric and global mean trends in Earth's energy fluxes during the first 20 years of the twenty-first century. Regional trends in net top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), ECMWF Reanalysis 5 (ERA5), and a model similar to ERA5 with prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice differ markedly, particularly over the Eastern Pacific Ocean, where CERES observes large positive trends. Hemispheric and global mean net TOA flux trends for the two reanalyses are smaller than CERES, and their climatological means are half those of CERES in the southern hemisphere (SH) and more than nine times larger in the northern hemisphere (NH). The regional trend pattern of the divergence of total atmospheric energy transport (TEDIV) over ocean determined using ERA5 analyzed fields is similar to that inferred from the difference between TOA and surface fluxes from ERA5 short-term forecasts. There is also agreement in the trend pattern over ocean for surface fluxes inferred as a residual between CERES net TOA flux and ERA5 analysis TEDIV and surface fluxes obtained directly from ERA5 forecasts. Robust trends are observed over the Gulf Stream associated with enhanced surface-to-atmosphere transfer of heat. Within the ocean, larger trends in ocean heating rate are found in the NH than the SH after 2005, but the magnitude of the trend varies greatly among datasets.
Scott, Ryan C.; Rose, Fred G.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Taylor, Patrick C.; Smith, William L.Scott, R. C., F. G. Rose, P. W. Stackhouse, N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, D. R. Doelling, D. A. Rutan, P. C. Taylor, W. L. Smith, 2022: Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Radiative Swath (CRS) Edition 4 Data Product. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., -1(aop). doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-22-0021.1. Abstract Satellite observations from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometers have produced over two decades of world-class data documenting time-space variations in Earth’s top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. In addition to energy exchanges among Earth and space, climate studies require accurate information on radiant energy exchanges at the surface and within the atmosphere. The CERES Cloud Radiative Swath (CRS) data product extends the standard Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) data product by calculating a suite of radiative fluxes from the surface to TOA at the instantaneous CERES footprint scale using the NASA Langley Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Here, we describe the CRS flux algorithm and evaluate its performance against a network of ground-based measurements and CERES TOA observations. CRS all-sky downwelling broadband fluxes show significant improvements in surface validation statistics relative to the parameterized fluxes on the SSF product, including a ~30-40% (~20%) reduction in SW↓ (LW↓) root-mean-square error (RMSΔ), improved correlation coefficients, and the lowest SW↓ bias over most surface types. RMSΔ and correlation statistics improve over five different surface types under both overcast and clear-sky conditions. The global mean computed TOA outgoing LW radiation (OLR) remains within
Taylor, Patrick Charles; Itterly, Kyle Frederick; Corbett, Joe; Bucholtz, Anthony; Sejas, Sergio; Su, Wenying; Doelling, David R.; Kato, SeijiTaylor, P. C., K. F. Itterly, J. Corbett, A. Bucholtz, S. Sejas, W. Su, D. R. Doelling, S. Kato, 2022: A Comparison of Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Fluxes from CERES and ARISE. doi: 10.1002/essoar.10512242.1. Uncertainty in Arctic top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux observations stems from the low sun angles and the heterogeneous scenes. Advancing our understanding of the Arctic climate system requires


Arouf, Assia; Chepfer, Hélène; Vaillant de Guélis, Thibault; Chiriaco, Marjolaine; Shupe, Matthew D.; Guzman, Rodrigo; Feofilov, Artem; Raberanto, Patrick; L’Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Kato, Seiji; Gallagher, Michael R.Arouf, A., H. Chepfer, T. Vaillant de Guélis, M. Chiriaco, M. D. Shupe, R. Guzman, A. Feofilov, P. Raberanto, T. S. L’Ecuyer, S. Kato, M. R. Gallagher, 2021: The Surface Longwave Cloud Radiative Effect derived from Space Lidar Observations. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 1-54. doi: 10.5194/amt-2021-392. Abstract. Clouds warm the surface in the longwave (LW) and this warming effect can be quantified through the surface LW cloud radiative effect (CRE). The global surface LW CRE is estimated using long-term observations from space-based radiometers (2000–2021) but has some bias over continents and icy surfaces. It is also estimated globally using the combination of radar, lidar and space-based radiometer over the 5–year period ending in 2011. To develop a more reliable long time series of surface LW CRE over continental and icy surfaces, we propose new estimates of the global surface LW CRE from space-based lidar observations. We show from 1D atmospheric column radiative transfer calculations, that surface LW CRE linearly decreases with increasing cloud altitude. These computations allow us to establish simple relationships between surface LW CRE, and five cloud properties that are well observed by the CALIPSO space-based lidar: opaque cloud cover and altitude, and thin cloud cover, altitude, and emissivity. We use these relationships to retrieve the surface LW CRE at global scale over the 2008–2020 time period (27 Wm−2). We evaluate this new surface LW CRE product by comparing it to existing satellite-derived products globally on instantaneous collocated data at footprint scale and on global averages, as well as to ground-based observations at specific locations. Our estimate appears to be an improvement over others as it appropriately capture the surface LW CRE annual variability over bright polar surfaces and it provides a dataset of more than 13 years long.
Biagio, C. Di; Pelon, J.; Blanchard, Y.; Loyer, L.; Hudson, S. R.; Walden, V. P.; Raut, J.-C.; Kato, S.; Mariage, V.; Granskog, M. A.Biagio, C. D., J. Pelon, Y. Blanchard, L. Loyer, S. R. Hudson, V. P. Walden, J. Raut, S. Kato, V. Mariage, M. A. Granskog, 2021: Towards a better surface radiation budget analysis over sea ice in the high Arctic Ocean: a comparative study between satellite, reanalysis, and local‒scale observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, (In press). doi: AbstractReanalysis datasets from atmospheric models and satellite products are often used for Arctic surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative budget analyses, but they suffer from limitations and require validation against local‒scale observations. These are rare in the high Arctic, especially for longer periods that include seasonal transitions. In this study, radiation and meteorological observations acquired during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice Cruise (N‒ICE2015) campaign over sea ice north of Svalbard (80‒83°N, 5‒25°E) from January to June 2015, cloud lidar observations from the Ice‒Atmosphere‒Ocean Observing System (IAOOS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) are compared to daily and monthly satellite retrievals from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and ERA‒Interim and ERA5 reanalyses. Results indicate that surface temperature is a significant driver for winter LW radiation biases in both satellite and reanalysis data, along with cloud optical depth in CERES. In May the SW and LW downwelling irradiances are close to observations and cloud properties are well captured (except for ERA-Interim), while SW upward irradiances are biased low due to surface albedo biases in all datasets. Net SW and LW radiation biases are comparable (⁓20‒30 Wm‒2) but opposite in sign for ERA‒Interim and CERES in May, which allows for error compensation. Biases reduce to ±10 Wm‒2 in ERA5. In June downward LW remains biased low (8‒10 Wm‒2) in all datasets suggesting unsettled cloud representation issues. Surface albedo always differs by more than 0.1 between datasets, leading to significant SW and total flux differences.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. clouds; surface albedo; sea ice; temperature; reanalysis; radiation; satellite data; high Arctic Ocean
Chen, Hong; Schmidt, Sebastian; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Bucholtz, Anthony; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Segal-Rozenhaimer, Michal; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Pilewskie, PeterChen, H., S. Schmidt, M. D. King, G. Wind, A. Bucholtz, E. A. Reid, M. Segal-Rozenhaimer, W. L. Smith, P. C. Taylor, S. Kato, P. Pilewskie, 2021: The effect of low-level thin arctic clouds on shortwave irradiance: evaluation of estimates from spaceborne passive imagery with aircraft observations. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(4), 2673-2697. doi: 10.5194/amt-14-2673-2021. Abstract. Cloud optical properties such as optical thickness along with surface albedo are important inputs for deriving the shortwave radiative effects of clouds from spaceborne remote sensing. Owing to insufficient knowledge about the snow or ice surface in the Arctic, cloud detection and the retrieval products derived from passive remote sensing, such as from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are difficult to obtain with adequate accuracy – especially for low-level thin clouds, which are ubiquitous in the Arctic. This study aims at evaluating the spectral and broadband irradiance calculated from MODIS-derived cloud properties in the Arctic using aircraft measurements collected during the Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE), specifically using the upwelling and downwelling shortwave spectral and broadband irradiance measured by the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and the BroadBand Radiometer system (BBR). This starts with the derivation of surface albedo from SSFR and BBR, accounting for the heterogeneous surface in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) with aircraft camera imagery, followed by subsequent intercomparisons of irradiance measurements and radiative transfer calculations in the presence of thin clouds. It ends with an attribution of any biases we found to causes, based on the spectral dependence and the variations in the measured and calculated irradiance along the flight track. The spectral surface albedo derived from the airborne radiometers is consistent with prior ground-based and airborne measurements and adequately represents the surface variability for the study region and time period. Somewhat surprisingly, the primary error in MODIS-derived irradiance fields for this study stems from undetected clouds, rather than from the retrieved cloud properties. In our case study, about 27 % of clouds remained undetected, which is attributable to clouds with an optical thickness of less than 0.5. We conclude that passive imagery has the potential to accurately predict shortwave irradiances in the region if the detection of thin clouds is improved. Of at least equal importance, however, is the need for an operational imagery-based surface albedo product for the polar regions that adequately captures its temporal, spatial, and spectral variability to estimate cloud radiative effects from spaceborne remote sensing.
Fillmore, David; Rutan, David; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred; Caldwell, ThomasFillmore, D., D. Rutan, S. Kato, F. Rose, T. Caldwell, 2021: Evaluation of aerosol optical depths and clear-sky radiative fluxes of the CERES Edition 4.1 SYN1deg data product. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-50. doi: 10.5194/acp-2021-283. Abstract. Aerosol optical depths (AOD) used for the Edition 4.1 Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic (SYN1deg) are evaluated. AODs are derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations and assimilated by an aerosol transport model (MATCH). As a consequence, clear-sky AODs closely match with those derived from MODIS instruments. AODs under all-sky conditions are larger than AODs under clear-sky conditions, which is supported by ground-based AERONET observations. When all-sky MATCH AODs are compared with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2) AODs, MATCH AODs are generally larger than MERRA2 AODS especially over convective regions (e.g. Amazon, central Africa, and eastern Asia). The difference is largely caused by MODIS AODs used for assimilation. Including AODs with larger retrieval uncertainty makes AODs over the convective regions larger. When AODs are used for clear-sky irradiance computations and computed downward shortwave irradiances are compared with ground- based observations, the computed instantaneous irradiances are 1 % to 2 % larger than observed irradiances. The comparison of top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiances with those derived from CERES observations suggests that AODs used for surface radiation observation sites are larger by 0.01 to 0.03, which is within the uncertainty of instantaneous MODIS AODs. However, the comparison with AERONET AOD suggests AODs used for computations over desert sites are 0.08 larger. The cause of positive biases of downward shortwave irradiance and AODs for the desert sites are unknown.
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Loeb, Norman G.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Thorsen, Tyler; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Miller, Walter F.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, N. G. Loeb, K. Xu, T. Thorsen, M. G. Bosilovich, S. Sun-Mack, Y. Chen, W. F. Miller, 2021: Examining Cloud Macrophysical Changes over the Pacific for 2007–17 Using CALIPSO, CloudSat, and MODIS Observations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 60(8), 1105-1126. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-20-0226.1. AbstractCloud macrophysical changes over the Pacific Ocean from 2007 to 2017 are examined by combining CALIPSO and CloudSat (CALCS) active-sensor measurements, and these are compared with MODIS passive-sensor observations. Both CALCS and MODIS capture well-known features of cloud changes over the Pacific associated with meteorological conditions during El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. For example, midcloud (cloud tops at 3–10 km) and high cloud (cloud tops at 10–18 km) amounts increase with relative humidity (RH) anomalies. However, a better correlation is obtained between CALCS cloud volume and RH anomalies, confirming more accurate CALCS cloud boundaries than MODIS. Both CALCS and MODIS show that low cloud (cloud tops at 0–3 km) amounts increase with EIS and decrease with SST over the eastern Pacific, consistent with earlier studies. It is also further shown that the low cloud amounts do not increase with positive EIS anomalies if SST anomalies are positive. While similar features are found between CALCS and MODIS low cloud anomalies, differences also exist. First, relative to CALCS, MODIS shows stronger anticorrelation between low and mid/high cloud anomalies over the central and western Pacific, which is largely due to the limitation in detecting overlapping clouds from passive MODIS measurements. Second, relative to CALCS, MODIS shows smaller impacts of mid- and high clouds on the low troposphere (<3 km). The differences are due to the underestimation of MODIS cloud layer thicknesses of mid- and high clouds.
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Fasullo, John T.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Lauritzen, Peter H.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Satoh, MasakiKato, S., N. G. Loeb, J. T. Fasullo, K. E. Trenberth, P. H. Lauritzen, F. G. Rose, D. A. Rutan, M. Satoh, 2021: Regional Energy and Water Budget of a Precipitating Atmosphere over Ocean. J. Climate, 34(11), 4189-4205. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0175.1. AbstractEffects of water mass imbalance and hydrometeor transport on the enthalpy flux and water phase on diabatic heating rate in computing the regional energy and water budget of the atmosphere over ocean are investigated. Equations of energy and water budget of the atmospheric column that explicitly consider the velocity of liquid and ice cloud particles, and rain and snow are formulated by separating water variables from dry air. Differences of energy budget equations formulated in this study from those used in earlier studies are that 1) diabatic heating rate depends on water phase, 2) diabatic heating due to net condensation of nonprecipitating hydrometeors is included, and 3) hydrometeors can be advected with a different velocity from the dry-air velocity. Convergence of water vapor associated with phase change and horizontal transport of hydrometeors is to increase diabatic heating in the atmospheric column where hydrometeors are formed and exported and to reduce energy where hydrometeors are imported and evaporated. The process can improve the regional energy and water mass balance when energy data products are integrated. Effects of enthalpy transport associated with water mass transport through the surface are cooling to the atmosphere and warming to the ocean when the enthalpy is averaged over the global ocean. There is no net effect to the atmosphere and ocean columns combined. While precipitation phase changes the regional diabatic heating rate up to 15 W m−2, the dependence of the global mean value on the temperature threshold of melting snow to form rain is less than 1 W m−2.
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, 2021: Reply to “Comments on ‘Global and Regional Entropy Production by Radiation Estimated from Satellite Observations’”. J. Climate, 34(9), 3729-3731. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0950.1. AbstractThis reply addresses a comment on the study by Kato and Rose (herein referred to as KR2020). The comment raises four points of criticism. These are 1) on notations used, 2) on a steady-state assumption made, 3) on the result of entropy production change with Earth’s albedo, and 4) disputing the statement that a simple energy balance model cannot produce absorption temperature change with Earth’s albedo. We concur on points 2 and 3 raised by the comment and recognize the significance of entropy storage due to ocean heating in the analysis of how entropy production changes with the shortwave absorptivity of Earth. Once entropy storage is considered, the results of KR2020 indicate that the increase of entropy production rate by irreversible processes, including by radiative processes, is smaller than the increase of entropy storage when absorptivity is increased. This is a manifestation of the primary contribution of positive top-of-atmosphere net irradiances (i.e., energy input to Earth) to heating the ocean and is consistent with an energy budget perspective. Once entropy storage is separated, the entropy production by irreversible processes increases with the shortwave absorptivity.
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Painemal, David; Smith, William L.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, F. Chang, D. Painemal, W. L. Smith, 2021: Evaluation of Regional Surface Energy Budget Over Ocean Derived From Satellites. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 1264. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.688299. The energy balance equation of an atmospheric column indicates that two approaches are possible to compute regional net surface energy flux. The first approach is to use the sum of surface energy flux components Fnet,c and the second approach is to use net top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance and horizontal energy transport by the atmosphere Fnet,t. When regional net energy flux is averaged over the global ocean, Fnet,c and Fnet,t are, respectively, 16 and 2 Wm–2, both larger than the ocean heating rate derived from ocean temperature measurements. The difference is larger than the estimated uncertainty of Fnet,t of 11 Wm–2. Larger regional differences between Fnet,c and Fnet,t exist over tropical ocean. The seasonal variability of energy flux components averaged between 45°N and 45°S ocean reveals that the surface provides net energy to the atmosphere from May to July. These two examples demonstrates that the energy balance can be used to assess the quality of energy flux data products.
Loeb, Norman G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Thorsen, Tyler J.; Lyman, John M.; Rose, Fred G.; Kato, SeijiLoeb, N. G., G. C. Johnson, T. J. Thorsen, J. M. Lyman, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, 2021: Satellite and Ocean Data Reveal Marked Increase in Earth’s Heating Rate. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(13), e2021GL093047. doi: 10.1029/2021GL093047. Earth's Energy Imbalance (EEI) is a relatively small (presently ∼0.3%) difference between global mean solar radiation absorbed and thermal infrared radiation emitted to space. EEI is set by natural and anthropogenic climate forcings and the climate system's response to those forcings. It is also influenced by internal variations within the climate system. Most of EEI warms the ocean; the remainder heats the land, melts ice, and warms the atmosphere. We show that independent satellite and in situ observations each yield statistically indistinguishable decadal increases in EEI from mid-2005 to mid-2019 of 0.50 ± 0.47 W m−2 decade−1 (5%–95% confidence interval). This trend is primarily due to an increase in absorbed solar radiation associated with decreased reflection by clouds and sea-ice and a decrease in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) due to increases in trace gases and water vapor. These changes combined exceed a positive trend in OLR due to increasing global mean temperatures. CERES; Earth energy imbalance; planetary heat uptake


Duncan, Bryan N.; Ott, Lesley E.; Abshire, James B.; Brucker, Ludovic; Carroll, Mark L.; Carton, James; Comiso, Josefino C.; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Gonsamo, Alemu; Gregg, Watson W.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Ialongo, Iolanda; Jandt, Randi; Kahn, Ralph A.; Karpechko, Alexey; Kawa, Stephan R.; Kato, Seiji; Kumpula, Timo; Kyrölä, Erkki; Loboda, Tatiana V.; McDonald, Kyle C.; Montesano, Paul M.; Nassar, Ray; Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Poulter, Benjamin; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Rogers, Brendan M.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.; Soja, Amber J.; Steiner, Nicholas; Tamminen, Johanna; Taylor, Patrick C.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Virta, Henrik; Wang, James S.; Watts, Jennifer D.; Winker, David M.; Wu, Dong L.Duncan, B. N., L. E. Ott, J. B. Abshire, L. Brucker, M. L. Carroll, J. Carton, J. C. Comiso, E. P. Dinnat, B. C. Forbes, A. Gonsamo, W. W. Gregg, D. K. Hall, I. Ialongo, R. Jandt, R. A. Kahn, A. Karpechko, S. R. Kawa, S. Kato, T. Kumpula, E. Kyrölä, T. V. Loboda, K. C. McDonald, P. M. Montesano, R. Nassar, C. S. R. Neigh, C. L. Parkinson, B. Poulter, J. Pulliainen, K. Rautiainen, B. M. Rogers, C. S. Rousseaux, A. J. Soja, N. Steiner, J. Tamminen, P. C. Taylor, M. A. Tzortziou, H. Virta, J. S. Wang, J. D. Watts, D. M. Winker, D. L. Wu, 2020: Space-Based Observations for Understanding Changes in the Arctic-Boreal Zone. Reviews of Geophysics, 58(1), e2019RG000652. doi: 10.1029/2019RG000652. Observations taken over the last few decades indicate that dramatic changes are occurring in the Arctic-Boreal Zone (ABZ), which are having significant impacts on ABZ inhabitants, infrastructure, flora and fauna, and economies. While suitable for detecting overall change, the current capability is inadequate for systematic monitoring and for improving process-based and large-scale understanding of the integrated components of the ABZ, which includes the cryosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Such knowledge will lead to improvements in Earth system models, enabling more accurate prediction of future changes and development of informed adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this article, we review the strengths and limitations of current space-based observational capabilities for several important ABZ components and make recommendations for improving upon these current capabilities. We recommend an interdisciplinary and stepwise approach to develop a comprehensive ABZ Observing Network (ABZ-ON), beginning with an initial focus on observing networks designed to gain process-based understanding for individual ABZ components and systems that can then serve as the building blocks for a comprehensive ABZ-ON. Arctic; satellite; Arctic-Boreal Zone; Boreal; Observing Strategy
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, 2020: Examining Biases in Diurnally-Integrated Shortwave Irradiances due to Two- and Four-Stream Approximations in Cloudy Atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 77(2), 551–581. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-19-0215.1. Shortwave irradiance biases due to two- and four-stream approximations have been studied for the last couple of decades, but biases in estimating Earth’s radiation budget have not been examined in earlier studies. In order to quantify biases in diurnally-averaged irradiances, we integrate the two- and four-stream biases using realistic diurnal variations of cloud properties from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) synoptic (SYN) hourly product. Three approximations are examined in this study, delta-two-stream-Eddington (D2strEdd), delta-two-stream-quadrature (D2strQuad), and delta-four-stream-quadrature (D4strQuad). Irradiances computed by the Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods are used as references. The MC noises are further examined by comparing with DISORT results. When the biases are integrated with a one-day of solar zenith angle variation, regional biases of D2strEdd and D2strQuad reach up to 8 W m−2, while biases of D4strQuad reach up to 2 W m−2. When the biases are further averaged monthly or annually, regional biases of D2strEdd and D2strQuad can reach –1.5 W m−2 in SW top-of-atmosphere (TOA) upward irradiances and +3 W m−2 in surface downward irradiances. In contrast, regional biases of D4strQuad are within +0.9 for TOA irradiances and –1.2 W m−2 for surface irradiances. Except for polar regions, monthly and annual global mean biases are similar, suggesting that the biases are nearly independent to season. Biases in SW heating rate profiles are up to –0.008 Kd−1 for D2strEdd and –0.016 K d−1 for D2strQuad, while the biases of the D4strQuad method are negligible.
Hogikyan, Allison; Cronin, Meghan F.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Kato, SeijiHogikyan, A., M. F. Cronin, D. Zhang, S. Kato, 2020: Uncertainty in Net Surface Heat Flux due to Differences in Commonly Used Albedo Products. J. Climate, 33(1), 303-315. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0448.1. The ocean surface albedo is responsible for the distribution of solar (shortwave) radiant energy between the atmosphere and ocean and therefore is a key parameter in Earth’s surface energy budget. In situ ocean observations typically do not measure upward reflected solar radiation, which is necessary to compute net solar radiation into the ocean. Instead, the upward component is computed from the measured downward component using an albedo estimate. At two NOAA Ocean Climate Station buoy sites in the North Pacific, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) monthly climatological albedo has been used, while for the NOAA Global Tropical Buoy Array a constant albedo is used. This constant albedo is also used in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk flux algorithm. This study considers the impacts of using the more recently available NASA Cloud and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) albedo product for these ocean surface heat flux products. Differences between albedo estimates in global satellite products like these imply uncertainty in the net surface solar radiation heat flux estimates that locally exceed the target uncertainty of 1.0 W m−2 for the global mean, set by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Albedo has large spatiotemporal variability on hourly, monthly, and interannual time scales. Biases in high-resolution SWnet (the difference between surface downwelling and upwelling shortwave radiation) can arise if the albedo diurnal cycle is unresolved. As a result, for periods when satellite albedo data are not available it is recommended that an hourly climatology be used when computing high-resolution net surface shortwave radiation.
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, D. A. Rutan, F. G. Rose, 2020: Effects of electromagnetic wave interference on observations of the Earth radiation budget. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 253, 107157. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2020.107157. This paper investigates conditions necessary to match the irradiance derived by integrating radiances measured by a narrow field of view scanning radiometer with the irradiance measured by a hemispherical radiometer, both placed at a satellite altitude for Earth radiation budget estimates. When all sources are similar and they are spatially distributed randomly, then integrating radiance for the irradiance does not introduce a bias. Although the exact magnitude of the bias in other conditions is unknown, a finite area of the aperture that is much larger than the coherence area of radiation contributing to the Earth radiation budget, and a finite time to take a single measurement that is longer than the coherence time are likely to make the difference of the irradiance integrated from radiances and the irradiance measured by a hemispherical instrument insignificant. This conclusion does not contradict the existence of spatial coherence of light from incoherent sources. Therefore, electromagnetic energy absorbed by Earth is derivable from radiances measured by a scanning radiometer integrated over the Earth-viewing hemisphere and then averaging across all locations on the satellite orbital sphere when combined with solar irradiance measurements. Comparisons made in earlier studies show that the difference is less than 1%. In addition, when surface irradiances computed by a radiative transfer model constrained by top-of-atmosphere irradiances derived from radiance measurements are compared with downward shortwave irradiances taken by combinations of a pyreheliometer and a shaded pyranometer, or pyranometers, and with longwave irradiances taken by pyrgeometers, the biases in monthly mean irradiances are less than the uncertainties in the surface observations.
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, 2020: Global and Regional Entropy Production by Radiation Estimated from Satellite Observations. J. Climate, 33(8), 2985-3000. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0596.1. Vertical profiles of shortwave and longwave irradiances computed with satellite-derived cloud properties and temperature and humidity profiles from reanalysis are used to estimate entropy production. Entropy production by shortwave radiation is computed by the absorbed irradiance within layers in the atmosphere and by the surface divided by their temperatures. Similarly, entropy production by longwave radiation is computed by emitted irradiance to space from layers in the atmosphere and surface divided by their temperatures. Global annual mean entropy production by shortwave absorption and longwave emission to space are, respectively, 0.852 and 0.928 W m−2 K−1. With a steady-state assumption, entropy production by irreversible processes within the Earth system is estimated to be 0.076 W m−2 K−1 and by nonradiative irreversible processes to be 0.049 W m−2 K−1. Both global annual mean entropy productions by shortwave absorption and longwave emission to space increase with increasing shortwave absorption (i.e., with decreasing the planetary albedo). The increase of entropy production by shortwave absorption is, however, larger than the increase of entropy production by longwave emission to space. The result implies that global annual mean entropy production by irreversible processes decreases with increasing shortwave absorption. Input and output temperatures derived by dividing the absorbed shortwave irradiance and emitted longwave irradiance to space by respective entropy production are, respectively, 282 and 259 K, which give the Carnot efficiency of the Earth system of 8.5%.
Kato, Seiji; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Ham, Seung-Hee; Radkevich, Alexander; Thorsen, Tyler J.; Viudez-Mora, Antonio; Fillmore, David; Huang, XiangleiKato, S., D. A. Rutan, F. G. Rose, T. E. Caldwell, S. Ham, A. Radkevich, T. J. Thorsen, A. Viudez-Mora, D. Fillmore, X. Huang, 2020: Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived Surface Irradiances and Challenges in Producing Surface Radiation Budget Climate Data Record. Remote Sensing, 12(12), 1950. doi: 10.3390/rs12121950. The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Edition 4.1 data product provides global surface irradiances. Uncertainties in the global and regional monthly and annual mean all-sky net shortwave, longwave, and shortwave plus longwave (total) irradiances are estimated using ground-based observations. Error covariance is derived from surface irradiance sensitivity to surface, atmospheric, cloud and aerosol property perturbations. Uncertainties in global annual mean net shortwave, longwave, and total irradiances at the surface are, respectively, 5.7 Wm−2, 6.7 Wm−2, and 9.7 Wm−2. In addition, the uncertainty in surface downward irradiance monthly anomalies and their trends are estimated based on the difference derived from EBAF surface irradiances and observations. The uncertainty in the decadal trend suggests that when differences of decadal global mean downward shortwave and longwave irradiances are, respectively, greater than 0.45 Wm−2 and 0.52 Wm−2, the difference is larger than 1σ uncertainties. However, surface irradiance observation sites are located predominately over tropical oceans and the northern hemisphere mid-latitude. As a consequence, the effect of a discontinuity introduced by using multiple geostationary satellites in deriving cloud properties is likely to be excluded from these trend and decadal change uncertainty estimates. Nevertheless, the monthly anomaly timeseries of radiative cooling in the atmosphere (multiplied by −1) agrees reasonably well with the anomaly time series of diabatic heating derived from global mean precipitation and sensible heat flux with a correlation coefficient of 0.46. surface radiation budget; variability; regional monthly mean
Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Kato, Seiji; Rutan, David A.; Su, Wenying; Wang, Hailan; Doelling, David R.; Smith, William L.; Gettelman, AndrewLoeb, N. G., F. G. Rose, S. Kato, D. A. Rutan, W. Su, H. Wang, D. R. Doelling, W. L. Smith, A. Gettelman, 2020: Toward a Consistent Definition between Satellite and Model Clear-Sky Radiative Fluxes. J. Climate, 33(1), 61-75. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0381.1. A new method of determining clear-sky radiative fluxes from satellite observations for climate model evaluation is presented. The method consists of applying adjustment factors to existing satellite clear-sky broadband radiative fluxes that make the observed and simulated clear-sky flux definitions more consistent. The adjustment factors are determined from the difference between observation-based radiative transfer model calculations of monthly mean clear-sky fluxes obtained by ignoring clouds in the atmospheric column and by weighting hourly mean clear-sky fluxes with imager-based clear-area fractions. The global mean longwave (LW) adjustment factor is −2.2 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere and 2.7 W m−2 at the surface. The LW adjustment factors are pronounced at high latitudes during winter and in regions with high upper-tropospheric humidity and cirrus cloud cover, such as over the west tropical Pacific, and the South Pacific and intertropical convergence zones. In the shortwave (SW), global mean adjustment is 0.5 W m−2 at TOA and −1.9 W m−2 at the surface. It is most pronounced over sea ice off of Antarctica and over heavy aerosol regions, such as eastern China. However, interannual variations in the regional SW and LW adjustment factors are small compared to those in cloud radiative effect. After applying the LW adjustment factors, differences in zonal mean cloud radiative effect between observations and climate models decrease markedly between 60°S and 60°N and poleward of 65°N. The largest regional improvements occur over the west tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. In contrast, the impact of the SW adjustment factors is much smaller.
Pan, Fang; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Radkevich, Alexander; Liu, Xu; Huang, XiangleiPan, F., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, A. Radkevich, X. Liu, X. Huang, 2020: An Algorithm to Derive Temperature and Humidity Profile Changes Using Spatially and Temporally Averaged Spectral Radiance Differences. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 37(7), 1173-1187. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0143.1.
Thorsen, Tyler J.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Kato, Seiji; Winker, David M.Thorsen, T. J., R. A. Ferrare, S. Kato, D. M. Winker, 2020: Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect Sensitivity Analysis. J. Climate, 33(14), 6119-6139. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0669.1.


Cronin, Meghan F.; Gentemann, Chelle L.; Edson, James; Ueki, Iwao; Bourassa, Mark; Brown, Shannon; Clayson, Carol Anne; Fairall, Chris W.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Gille, Sarah T.; Gulev, Sergey; Josey, Simon A.; Kato, Seiji; Katsumata, Masaki; Kent, Elizabeth; Krug, Marjolaine; Minnett, Peter J.; Parfitt, Rhys; Pinker, Rachel T.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Swart, Sebastiaan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Vandemark, Douglas; Weller, A. Robert; Yoneyama, Kunio; Yu, Lisan; Zhang, DongxiaoCronin, M. F., C. L. Gentemann, J. Edson, I. Ueki, M. Bourassa, S. Brown, C. A. Clayson, C. W. Fairall, J. T. Farrar, S. T. Gille, S. Gulev, S. A. Josey, S. Kato, M. Katsumata, E. Kent, M. Krug, P. J. Minnett, R. Parfitt, R. T. Pinker, P. W. Stackhouse, S. Swart, H. Tomita, D. Vandemark, A. R. Weller, K. Yoneyama, L. Yu, D. Zhang, 2019: Air-Sea Fluxes With a Focus on Heat and Momentum. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 430. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00430. Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the global, ice-free ocean with breakthrough 1-day random uncertainty of 15 W m–2 and a bias of less than 5 W m–2. At present this accuracy target is met only for OceanSITES reference station moorings and research vessels (RVs) that follow best practices. To meet these targets globally, in the next decade, satellite-based observations must be optimized for boundary layer measurements of air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind stress. In order to tune and validate these satellite measurements, a complementary global in situ flux array, built around an expanded OceanSITES network of time series reference station moorings, is also needed. The array would include 500–1000 measurement platforms, including autonomous surface vehicles, moored and drifting buoys, RVs, the existing OceanSITES network of 22 flux sites, and new OceanSITES expanded in 19 key regions. This array would be globally distributed, with 1–3 measurement platforms in each nominal 10° by 10° box. These improved moisture and temperature profiles and surface data, if assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, would lead to better representation of cloud formation processes, improving state variables and surface radiative and turbulent fluxes from these models. The in situ flux array provides globally distributed measurements and metrics for satellite algorithm development, product validation, and for improving satellite-based, NWP and blended flux products. In addition, some of these flux platforms will also measure direct turbulent fluxes, which can be used to improve algorithms for computation of air-sea exchange of heat and momentum in flux products and models. With these improved air-sea fluxes, the ocean’s influence on the atmosphere will be better quantified and lead to improved long-term weather forecasts, seasonal-interannual-decadal climate predictions, and regional climate projections.
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, 2019: Impacts of Partly Cloudy Pixels on Shortwave Broadband Irradiance Computations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 36(3), 369-386. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0153.1. Because of the limitation of the spatial resolution of satellite sensors, satellite pixels identified as cloudy are often partly cloudy. For the first time, this study demonstrates the bias in shortwave (SW) broadband irradiances for partly cloudy pixels when the cloud optical depths are retrieved with an overcast and homogeneous assumption, and subsequently, the retrieved values are used for the irradiance computations. The sign of the SW irradiance bias is mainly a function of viewing geometry of the cloud retrieval. The bias in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) upward SW irradiances is positive for small viewing zenith angles (VZAs) ~60°. For a given solar zenith angle and viewing geometry, the magnitude of the bias increases with the cloud optical depth and reaches a maximum at the cloud fraction between 0.2 and 0.8. The sign of the SW surface net irradiance bias is opposite of the sign of TOA upward irradiance bias, with a similar magnitude. As a result, the bias in absorbed SW irradiances by the atmosphere is smaller than the biases in both TOA and surface irradiances. The monthly mean biases in SW irradiances due to partly cloudy pixels are
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Ham, Seung Hee; Rutan, David A.; Radkevich, Alexander; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Sun‐Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, YanKato, S., F. G. Rose, S. H. Ham, D. A. Rutan, A. Radkevich, T. E. Caldwell, S. Sun‐Mack, W. F. Miller, Y. Chen, 2019: Radiative Heating Rates Computed with Clouds Derived from Satellite-based Passive and Active Sensors and their Effects on Generation of Available Potential Energy. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(3), 1720-1740. doi: 10.1029/2018JD028878. Radiative heating rates computed with cloud properties derived from passive and active sensors are investigated. Zonal monthly radiative heating rate anomalies computed using both active and passive sensors show that larger variability in longwave cooling exists near the tropical tropopause and near the top of the boundary layer between 50°N to 50°S. Aerosol variability contributes to increases in shortwave heating rate variability. When zonal monthly mean cloud effects on the radiative heating rate computed with both active and passive sensors and those computed with passive sensor only are compared, the latter shows cooling and heating peaks corresponding to cloud top and base height ranges used for separating cloud types. The difference of these two sets of cloud radiative effect on heating rates in the middle to upper troposphere is larger than the radiative heating rate uncertainty estimated based on the difference of two active sensor radiative heating rate profile data products. In addition, radiative heating rate contribution to generation of eddy available potential energy is also investigated. Although radiation contribution to generation of eddy available potential energy averaged over a year and the entire globe is small, radiation increases the eddy available potential energy in the northern hemisphere during summer. Two key elements that longwave radiation contribute to the generation of eddy potential energy are 1) longitudinal temperature gradient in the atmosphere associated with land and ocean surface temperatures contrasts and absorption of longwave radiation emitted by the surface and 2) cooling near the cloud top of stratocumulus clouds. clouds; Available potential energy; Heating rate; Radiation
Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Rose, Fred G.; Kato, Seiji; Smith, William L.; Sun-Mack, SunnyLoeb, N. G., H. Wang, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, W. L. Smith, S. Sun-Mack, 2019: Decomposing Shortwave Top-of-Atmosphere and Surface Radiative Flux Variations in Terms of Surface and Atmospheric Contributions. J. Climate, 32(16), 5003–501. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0826.1. A diagnostic tool for determining surface and atmospheric contributions to interannual variations in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflected shortwave (SW) and net downward SW surface radiative fluxes is introduced. The method requires only upward and downward radiative fluxes at the TOA and surface as input and therefore can readily be applied to both satellite-derived and model-generated radiative fluxes. Observations from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Ed4.0 product show that 81% of the monthly variability in global mean reflected SW TOA flux anomalies is associated with atmospheric variations (mainly clouds), 6% is from surface variations, and 13% is from atmosphere-surface covariability. Over the Arctic Ocean, most of the variability in both reflected SW TOA flux and net downward SW surface flux anomalies is explained by variations in sea-ice and cloud fraction alone (r2=0.94). Compared to CERES, variability in two reanalyses—ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) and NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)—show large differences in the regional distribution of variance for both the atmospheric and surface contributions to anomalies in net downward SW surface flux. For MERRA-2 the atmospheric contribution is 17% too large compared to CERES while ERA-Interim underestimates the variance by 15%. The difference is mainly due to how cloud variations are represented in the reanalyses. The overall surface contribution in both ERA-Interim and MERRA- 2 is smaller than CERES EBAF by 15% for ERA-Interim and 58% for MERRA-2, highlighting limitations of the reanalyses in representing surface albedo variations and their influence on SW radiative fluxes.
Meyssignac, Benoit; Boyer, Tim; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Landerer, Felix W.; Stammer, Detlef; Köhl, Armin; Kato, Seiji; L’Ecuyer, Tristan; Ablain, Michael; Abraham, John Patrick; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cazenave, Anny; Church, John A.; Cowley, Rebecca; Cheng, Lijing; Domingues, Catia M.; Giglio, Donata; Gouretski, Viktor; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C.; Killick, Rachel E.; Legler, David; Llovel, William; Lyman, John; Palmer, Matthew Dudley; Piotrowicz, Steve; Purkey, Sarah G.; Roemmich, Dean; Roca, Rémy; Savita, Abhishek; Schuckmann, Karina von; Speich, Sabrina; Stephens, Graeme; Wang, Gongjie; Wijffels, Susan Elisabeth; Zilberman, NathalieMeyssignac, B., T. Boyer, Z. Zhao, M. Z. Hakuba, F. W. Landerer, D. Stammer, A. Köhl, S. Kato, T. L’Ecuyer, M. Ablain, J. P. Abraham, A. Blazquez, A. Cazenave, J. A. Church, R. Cowley, L. Cheng, C. M. Domingues, D. Giglio, V. Gouretski, M. Ishii, G. C. Johnson, R. E. Killick, D. Legler, W. Llovel, J. Lyman, M. D. Palmer, S. Piotrowicz, S. G. Purkey, D. Roemmich, R. Roca, A. Savita, K. v. Schuckmann, S. Speich, G. Stephens, G. Wang, S. E. Wijffels, N. Zilberman, 2019: Measuring Global Ocean Heat Content to Estimate the Earth Energy Imbalance. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 432. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00432. The energy radiated by the Earth towards space does not compensate the incoming radiation from the Sun leading to a small positive energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere (0.4-1.Wm-2). This imbalance is coined Earth’s Energy Imbalance (EEI). It is mostly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions and is driving the current warming of the planet. Precise monitoring of EEI is critical to assess the current status of climate change and the future evolution of climate. But the monitoring of EEI is challenging as EEI is two order of magnitude smaller than the radiation fluxes in and out of the Earth. Over 93% of the excess energy that is gained by the Earth in response to the positive EEI accumulates into the ocean in the form of heat. This accumulation of heat can be tracked with the ocean observing system such that today, the monitoring of Ocean Heat Content (OHC) and its long-term change provide the most efficient approach to estimate EEI. In this community paper we review the current four state-of-the-art methods to estimate global OHC changes and evaluate their relevance to derive EEI estimate on different time scales. These four methods make use of : 1) direct observations of in situ temperature; 2) satellite-based measurements of the ocean surface net heat fluxes; 3) satellite-based estimates of the thermal expansion of the ocean and 4) ocean reanalyses that assimilate observations from both satellite and in situ instruments. For each method we review the potential and the uncertainty of the method to estimate global OHC changes. We also analyze gaps in the current capability of each method and identify ways of progress for the future to fulfill the requirements of EEI monitoring. Achieving the observation of EEI with sufficient accuracy will depend on merging the remote sensing techniques with in situ measurements of key variables as an integral part of the Ocean Observing System. CERES; altimetry; Earth Energy Imbalance; ARGO; GRACE (Gravity recovery and climate experiment); internal tide tomography; ocean heat content (OHC); Ocean mass; Ocean surface fluxes; Sea level
Saito, Masanori; Yang, Ping; Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, SeijiSaito, M., P. Yang, N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, 2019: A Novel Parameterization of Snow Albedo Based on a Two-Layer Snow Model with a Mixture of Grain Habits. J. Atmos. Sci., 76(5), 1419-1436. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0308.1. Snow albedo plays a critical role in the surface energy budget in snow-covered regions and is subject to large uncertainty due to variable physical and optical characteristics of snow. We develop an optically and microphysically consistent snow grain habit mixture (SGHM) model, aiming at an improved representation of bulk snow properties in conjunction with considering the particle size distribution, particle shape, and internally mixed black carbon (BC). Spectral snow albedos computed with two snow layers with the SGHM model implemented in an adding–doubling radiative transfer model agree with observations. Top-snow-layer optical properties essentially determine spectral snow albedo when the top-layer snow water equivalent (SWE) is large. When the top-layer SWE is less than 1 mm, the second-snow-layer optical properties have nonnegligible impacts on the albedo of the snow surface. Snow albedo enhancement with increasing solar zenith angle (SZA) largely depends on snow particle effective radius and also internally mixed BC. Based on the SGHM model and various sensitivity studies, single- and two-layer snow albedos are parameterized for six spectral bands used in NASA Langley Research Center’s modified Fu–Liou broadband radiative transfer model. Parameterized albedo is expressed as a function of snow particle effective radii of the two layers, SWE in the top layer, internally mixed BC mass fraction in both layers, and SZA. Both single-layer and two-layer parameterizations provide band-mean snow albedo consistent with rigorous calculations, achieving correlation coefficients close to 0.99 for all bands.
Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P.; Loughman, R. P.Shrestha, A. K., S. Kato, T. Wong, P. Stackhouse, R. P. Loughman, 2019: New Temporal and Spectral Unfiltering Technique for ERBE/ERBS WFOV Nonscanner Instrument Observations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1-12. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2019.2891748. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) nonscanner instrument onboard Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) provided critical 15-year outgoing broadband irradiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) from 1985 to 1999 for studying Earth's climate. However, earlier studies show that the uncertainty in this radiation data set (Ed3) is significantly higher after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and satellite battery issue in 1993. Furthermore, Lee et al. showed that the transmission of ERBS WFOV shortwave dome degraded due to exposure to direct sunlight. To account for this degradation, a simple time-dependent but spectral-independent correction model was implemented in the past. This simple spectral-independent model did not completely remove the shortwave sensor artifact as seen in the temporal growth of the tropical mean day-minus-night longwave irradiance. A new temporal-spectral-dependent correction model of shortwave dome transmissivity loss similar to that used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is developed and applied to the 15-year ERBS WFOV data. This model is constrained by the solar transmission obtained from ERBS WFOV shortwave nonscanner instrument observations of the Sun during biweekly in-flight solar calibration events. This new model is able to reduce the reported tropical day-minus-night longwave irradiance trend by ≈34%. In addition, the slope of this new trend is observed to be consistent over different regions. The remaining trend is accounted using a postprocess Ed3Rev1 correction. Furthermore, the time series analysis of these data over the Libya-4 desert site showed that the shortwave data are stable to within 0.7%. Earth; Instruments; Meteorology; Satellite broadcasting; Radiometry; Data models; Calibration; Data conversion; earth; energy measurements.
Wild, Martin; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Folini, Doris; Dorig-Ott, Patricia; Schar, Christoph; Kato, Seiji; Long, Charles N.Wild, M., M. Z. Hakuba, D. Folini, P. Dorig-Ott, C. Schar, S. Kato, C. N. Long, 2019: The cloud-free global energy balance and inferred cloud radiative effects: an assessment based on direct observations and climate models.. Climate dynamics, 52(7), 4787-4812. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4413-y. In recent studies we quantified the global mean Earth energy balance based on direct observations from surface and space. Here we infer complementary referenceestimates for its components specifically under cloud-free conditions. While the clear-sky fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) are accurately known from satellite measurements, the corresponding fluxes at the Earth's surface are not equally well established, as they cannot be directly measured from space. This is also evident in 38 global climate models from CMIP5, which are shown to greatly vary in their clear-sky surface radiation budgets. To better constrain the latter, we established new clear-sky reference climatologies of surface downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes from worldwide distributed Baseline Surface Radiation Network sites. 33 out of the 38 CMIP5 models overestimate the clear-sky downward shortwave reference climatologies, whereas both substantial overestimations and underestimations are found in the longwave counterparts in some of the models. From the bias structure of the CMIP5 models we infer best estimates for the global mean surface downward clear-sky shortwave and longwave radiation, at 247 and 314 Wm-2, respectively. With a global mean surface albedo of 13.5% and net shortwave clear-sky flux of 287 Wm-2 at the TOA this results in a global mean clear-sky surface and atmospheric shortwave absorption of 214 and 73 Wm-2, respectively. From the newly-established diagrams of the global energy balance under clear-sky and all-sky conditions, we quantify the cloud radiative effects not only at the TOA, but also within the atmosphere and at the surface.
Yu, Lisan; Jin, X.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Wilber, A. C.; Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G; Weller, R.Yu, L., X. Jin, P. W. Stackhouse, A. C. Wilber, S. Kato, N. G. Loeb, R. Weller, 2019: Global ocean heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes.[in "State of the Climate in 2018"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 100(9), S81-84. doi: 10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.


Chen, Xiuhong; Huang, Xianglei; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Dolinar, Erica K.; Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Bosilovich, Michael G.Chen, X., X. Huang, X. Dong, B. Xi, E. K. Dolinar, N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, P. W. Stackhouse, M. G. Bosilovich, 2018: Using AIRS and ARM SGP Clear-Sky Observations to Evaluate Meteorological Reanalyses: A Hyperspectral Radiance Closure Approach. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(20), 11,720-11,734. doi: 10.1029/2018JD028850. Using the ground-based measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and spectral radiance from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua, we evaluate the temperature and humidity profiles from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting ERA-Interim and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 reanalyses. Four sets of synthetic AIRS spectra are calculated using 51 clear-sky sounding profiles from the ARM SGP observations, the collocated AIRS L2 retrievals and the two reanalyses, respectively. A subset of AIRS channels sensitive to temperature, CO2, or H2O but not to other trace gases is chosen and further categorized into different groups according to the peak altitudes of their weighting functions. Synthetic radiances are then compared to the observed AIRS radiances for each group. For all groups, the observed AIRS radiances agree well with the synthetic ones based on the ARM SGP soundings or the AIRS L2 retrievals. The brightness temperature (BT) differences are within ±0.5 K. For two reanalyses, BT differences in all temperature-sensitive groups are generally within ±0.5 K; but the mean BT differences in all groups sensitive to both T and H2O are negative. Together, they suggest a wet bias in the free troposphere in both reanalyses. Moreover, such BT differences can be seen in the analysis of AIRS clear-sky radiances over the entire 30–40°N zone. A grid-search retrieval suggests that 9–30% reduction for reanalysis humidity between 200 and 800 hPa is needed to correct such wet bias. AIRS radiances; ARM soundings; reanalysis bias correction
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Thorsen, Tyler J.; Loeb, Norman G.; Doelling, David R.; Huang, Xianglei; Smith, William L.; Su, Wenying; Ham, Seung HeeKato, S., F. G. Rose, D. A. Rutan, T. J. Thorsen, N. G. Loeb, D. R. Doelling, X. Huang, W. L. Smith, W. Su, S. H. Ham, 2018: Surface Irradiances of Edition 4.0 Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Data Product. J. Climate, 31(11), 4501–4527. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0523.1. The algorithm to produce the Clouds and the Earth’s Energy System (CERES) Ed4.0 Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF)-surface data product is explained. The algorithm forces computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances to match with Ed4.0 EBAF-TOA irradiances by adjusting surface, cloud and atmospheric properties. Surface irradiances are subsequently adjusted using radiative kernels. The adjustment process is composed of two parts, bias correction and Lagrange multiplier. The bias in temperature and specific humidity between 200 hPa and 500 hPa used for the irradiance computation is corrected based on observations by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Similarly, the bias in the cloud fraction is corrected based on observations by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. Remaining errors in surface, cloud and atmospheric properties are corrected in the Lagrange multiplier process. Ed4.0 global annual mean (January 2005 thorough December 2014) surface net shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) irradiances, respectively, increases by 1.3 Wm-2 and decreases by 0.2 Wm-2 compared to EBAF Ed2.8 counterparts (the previous version), resulting increasing in net SW+LW surface irradiance by 1.1 Wm-2. The uncertainty in surface irradiances over ocean, land and polar regions at various spatial scales are estimated. The uncertainties in all-sky global annual mean upward and downward shortwave irradiance are, respectively, 3 Wm-2 and 4 Wm-2, and the uncertainties in upward and downward longwave irradiance are respectively, 3 Wm-2 and 6 Wm-2. With an assumption of all errors being independent the uncertainty in the global annual mean surface LW+SW net irradiance is 8 Wm-2.
Loeb, Norman G.; Doelling, David R.; Wang, Hailan; Su, Wenying; Nguyen, Cathy; Corbett, Joseph G.; Liang, Lusheng; Mitrescu, Cristian; Rose, Fred G.; Kato, SeijiLoeb, N. G., D. R. Doelling, H. Wang, W. Su, C. Nguyen, J. G. Corbett, L. Liang, C. Mitrescu, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, 2018: Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Edition 4.0 Data Product. J. Climate, 31(2), 895–918. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0208.1. The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) Ed4.0 data product is described. EBAF Ed4.0 is an update to EBAF Ed2.8, incorporating all of the Ed4.0 suite of CERES data product algorithm improvements and consistent input datasets throughout the record. A one-time adjustment to SW and LW TOA fluxes is made to ensure that global mean net TOA flux for July 2005-June 2015 is consistent with the in-situ value of 0.71 W m–2. While global mean all-sky TOA flux differences between Ed4.0 and Ed2.8 are within 0.5 Wm-2, appreciable SW regional differences occur over marine stratocumulus and snow/sea-ice regions. Marked regional differences in SW clear-sky TOA flux occur in polar regions and dust areas over ocean. Clear-sky LW TOA fluxes in EBAF Ed4.0 exceed Ed2.8 in regions of persistent high cloud cover. Owing to substantial differences in global mean clear-sky TOA fluxes, the net cloud radiative effect in EBAF Ed4.0 is -18 Wm-2 compared to -21 Wm-2 in EBAF Ed2.8. We estimate the overall uncertainty in 1°x1° latitude-longitude regional monthly all-sky TOA flux to be 3 Wm-2 (1σ) for the Terra-only period and 2.5 Wm-2 for the Terra-Aqua period both for SW and LW. The SW clear-sky regional monthly uncertainty is estimated to be 6 Wm-2 for the Terra-only period and 5 Wm-2 for the Terra-Aqua period. The LW clear-sky regional monthly uncertainty is 5 Wm-2 for Terra-only and 4.5 Wm-2 for Terra-Aqua.
Loeb, Norman G.; Yang, Ping; Rose, Fred G.; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Kato, Seiji; Ham, Seung-Hee; Smith, William L.; Hioki, Souichiro; Tang, GuanglinLoeb, N. G., P. Yang, F. G. Rose, G. Hong, S. Sun-Mack, P. Minnis, S. Kato, S. Ham, W. L. Smith, S. Hioki, G. Tang, 2018: Impact of Ice Cloud Microphysics on Satellite Cloud Retrievals and Broadband Flux Radiative Transfer Model Calculations. J. Climate, 31(5), 1851–1864. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0426.1. Ice cloud particles exhibit a range of shapes and sizes affecting a cloud’s single-scattering properties. Because they cannot be inferred from passive visible/infrared imager measurements, assumptions about the bulk single-scattering properties of ice clouds are fundamental to satellite cloud retrievals and broadband radiative flux calculations. To examine the sensitivity to ice particle model assumptions, three sets of models are used in satellite imager retrievals of ice cloud fraction, thermodynamic phase, optical depth, effective height and particle size, and in top-of-atmosphere and surface broadband radiative flux calculations. The three ice particle models include smooth hexagonal ice columns (SMOOTH), roughened hexagonal ice columns, and a two-habit model (THM) comprised of an ensemble of hexagonal columns and 20-element aggregates. While the choice of ice particle model has a negligible impact on daytime cloud fraction and thermodynamic phase, the global mean ice cloud optical depth retrieved from THM is smaller than SMOOTH by 2.3 (28%), and the regional root-mean-square-difference (RMSD) is 2.8 (32%). Effective radii derived from THM are 3.9 μm (16%) smaller than SMOOTH values and the RMSD is 5.2 μm (21%). In contrast, the regional RMSD in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface flux between the THM and SMOOTH is only 1% in the SW and 0.3% in the LW when a consistent ice particle model is assumed in the cloud property retrievals and forward radiative transfer model calculations. Consequently, radiative fluxes derived using a consistent ice particle model assumption throughout provide a more robust reference for climate model evaluation compared to ice cloud property retrievals.
Song, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhibo; Yu, Hongbin; Kato, Seiji; Yang, Ping; Colarco, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Ryder, Claire L.Song, Q., Z. Zhang, H. Yu, S. Kato, P. Yang, P. Colarco, L. A. Remer, C. L. Ryder, 2018: Net radiative effects of dust in the tropical North Atlantic based on integrated satellite observations and in situ measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(15), 11303-11322. doi: 10.5194/acp-18-11303-2018. In this study, we integrate recent in situ measurements with satellite retrievals of dust physical and radiative properties to quantify dust direct radiative effects on shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation (denoted as DRESW and DRELW, respectively) in the tropical North Atlantic during the summer months from 2007 to 2010. Through linear regression of the CERES-measured top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux versus satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, we estimate the instantaneous DRESW efficiency at the TOA to be -49.7 +/- 7.1 W m(-2) AOD(-1) and -36.5 +/- 4.8 W m(-2) AOD(-1) based on AOD from MODIS and CALIOP, respectively. We then perform various sensitivity studies based on recent measurements of dust particle size distribution (PSD), refractive index, and particle shape distribution to determine how the dust microphysical and optical properties affect DRE estimates and its agreement with the above-mentioned satellite-derived DREs. Our analysis shows that a good agreement with the observation-based estimates of instantaneous DRESW and DRELW can be achieved through a combination of recently observed PSD with substantial presence of coarse particles, a less absorptive SW refractive index, and spheroid shapes. Based on this optimal combination of dust physical properties we further estimate the diurnal mean dust DRESW in the region of -10 W m(-2) at TOA and -26 W m(-2) at the surface, respectively, of which similar to 30% is canceled out by the positive DRELW. This yields a net DRE of about -6.9 and -18.3 W m(-2) at TOA and the surface, respectively. Our study suggests that the LW flux contains useful information on dust particle size, which could be used together with SW observations to achieve a more holistic understanding of the dust radiative effect. desert dust; airborne mineral aerosols; atmospheric transport; boundary-layer; climate response; infrared optical depth; modis; refractive-index; saharan dust; size distribution
Su, Wenying; Liang, Lusheng; Doelling, David R.; Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thieman, Mandana M.; Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Wang, Hailan; Rose, Fred G.Su, W., L. Liang, D. R. Doelling, P. Minnis, D. P. Duda, K. V. Khlopenkov, M. M. Thieman, N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, F. P. J. Valero, H. Wang, F. G. Rose, 2018: Determining the Shortwave Radiative Flux from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(20), 11,479-11,491. doi: 10.1029/2018JD029390. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provides 10 narrowband spectral images of the sunlit side of the Earth. The blue (443 nm), green (551 nm), and red (680 nm) channels are used to derive EPIC broadband radiances based upon narrowband-to-broadband regressions developed using collocated MODIS equivalent channels and CERES broadband measurements. The pixel-level EPIC broadband radiances are averaged to provide global daytime means at all applicable EPIC times. They are converted to global daytime mean shortwave (SW) fluxes by accounting for the anisotropy characteristics using a cloud property composite based on lower Earth orbiting satellite imager retrievals and the CERES angular distribution models (ADMs). Global daytime mean SW fluxes show strong diurnal variations with daily maximum-minimum differences as great as 20 Wm−2 depending on the conditions of the sunlit portion of the Earth. The EPIC SW fluxes are compared against the CERES SYN1deg hourly SW fluxes. The global monthly mean differences (EPIC-SYN) between them range from 0.1 Wm−2 in July to -4.1 Wm−2 in January, and the RMS errors range from 3.2 Wm−2 to 5.2 Wm−2. Daily mean EPIC and SYN fluxes calculated using concurrent hours agree with each other to within 2% and both show a strong annual cycle. The SW flux agreement is within the calibration and algorithm uncertainties, which indicates that the method developed to calculate the global anisotropic factors from the CERES ADMs is robust and that the CERES ADMs accurately account for the Earth's anisotropy in the near-backscatter direction. CERES; angular distribution model; radiation; DSCOVR; EPIC; Lagrange-1 point
Thorsen, Tyler J.; Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.Thorsen, T. J., S. Kato, N. G. Loeb, F. G. Rose, 2018: Observation-Based Decomposition of Radiative Perturbations and Radiative Kernels. J. Climate, 31(24), 10039-10058. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0045.1. The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES)–partial radiative perturbation [PRP (CERES-PRP)] methodology applies partial-radiative-perturbation-like calculations to observational datasets to directly isolate the individual cloud, atmospheric, and surface property contributions to the variability of the radiation budget. The results of these calculations can further be used to construct radiative kernels. A suite of monthly mean observation-based inputs are used for the radiative transfer, including cloud properties from either the diurnally resolved passive-sensor-based CERES synoptic (SYN) data or the combination of the CloudSat cloud radar and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar. The CloudSat/CALIPSO cloud profiles are incorporated via a clustering method that obtains monthly mean cloud properties suitable for accurate radiative transfer calculations. The computed fluxes are validated using the TOA fluxes observed by CERES. Applications of the CERES-PRP methodology are demonstrated by computing the individual contributions to the variability of the radiation budget over multiple years and by deriving water vapor radiative kernels. The calculations for the former are used to show that an approximately linear decomposition of the total flux anomalies is achieved. The observation-based water vapor kernels were used to investigate the accuracy of the GCM-based NCAR CAM3.0 water vapor kernel. Differences between our observation-based kernel and the NCAR one are marginally larger than those inferred by previous comparisons among different GCM kernels.
Wong, T.; Smith, G. L.; Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Kopp, G.; Shrestha, A. K.Wong, T., G. L. Smith, S. Kato, N. G. Loeb, G. Kopp, A. K. Shrestha, 2018: On the Lessons Learned From the Operations of the ERBE Nonscanner Instrument in Space and the Production of the Nonscanner TOA Radiation Budget Data Set. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 56(10), 5936-5947. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2828783. Monitoring the flow of radiative energy at top of atmosphere (TOA) is essential for understanding Earth's climate and how it is changing with time. The determination of TOA global net radiation budget using broadband nonscanner instruments has received renewed interest recently due to advances in both instrument technology and the availability of small satellite platforms. The use of such instruments for monitoring Earth's radiation budget was attempted in the past from satellite missions such as the Nimbus-7 and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). This paper discusses the important lessons learned from the operation of the ERBE nonscanner instrument and the production of the ERBE nonscanner TOA radiation budget data set that have direct relevance to current nonscanner instrument efforts. Earth; Extraterrestrial measurements; atmospheric radiation; atmospheric techniques; Instruments; Meteorology; atmospheric measuring apparatus; Atmospheric measurements; uncertainty; Sea measurements; Satellite broadcasting; Data conversion; broadband nonscanner instruments; current nonscanner instrument efforts; Earth Radiation Budget Experiment; Earth's climate; energy measurement; ERBE nonscanner instrument; ERBE nonscanner TOA radiation budget data; important lessons; instrument technology; monitoring Earth's radiation budget; Nimbus-7; nonscanner TOA Radiation Budget data set; radiative energy; small satellite platforms; TOA global net radiation budget
Yu, L.; Jin, X; Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G; Stackhouse, P. W.; Weller, R. A.; Wilber, A. C.Yu, L., X. Jin, S. Kato, N. G. Loeb, P. W. Stackhouse, R. A. Weller, A. C. Wilber, 2018: Global ocean heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes [in “State of the Climate in 2017”].. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 99(8), S81-84. doi: 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.


de Guélis, T. V.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Guzman, R.; Dubuisson, P.; Winker, D. M.; Kato, Guélis, T. V., H. Chepfer, V. Noel, R. Guzman, P. Dubuisson, D. M. Winker, S. Kato, 2017: The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10(12), 4659-4685. doi: 10.5194/amt-10-4659-2017. According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show) the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m−2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the longwave domain and so helps us to understand the longwave cloud altitude feedback mechanism.
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, 2017: Examining impacts of mass-diameter (m-D) and area-diameter (A-D) relationships of ice particles on retrievals of effective radius and ice water content from radar and lidar measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(6), 3396–3420. doi: 10.1002/2016JD025672. Mass-diameter (m-D) and projected area-diameter (A-D) relations are often used to describe the shape of nonspherical ice particles. This study analytically investigates how retrieved effective radius (reff) and ice water content (IWC) from radar and lidar measurements depend on the assumption of m-D [m(D) = a Db] and A-D [A(D) = γ Dδ] relationships. We assume that unattenuated reflectivity factor (Z) and visible extinction coefficient (kext) by cloud particles are available from the radar and lidar measurements, respectively. A sensitivity test shows that reff increases with increasing a, decreasing b, decreasing γ, and increasing δ. It also shows that a 10% variation of a, b, γ, and δ induces more than a 100% change of reff. In addition, we consider both gamma and lognormal particle size distributions (PSDs) and examine the sensitivity of reff to the assumption of PSD. It is shown that reff increases by up to 10% with increasing dispersion (μ) of the gamma PSD by 2, when large ice particles are predominant. Moreover, reff decreases by up to 20% with increasing the width parameter (ω) of the lognormal PSD by 0.1. We also derive an analytic conversion equation between two effective radii when different particle shapes and PSD assumptions are used. When applying the conversion equation to nine types of m-D and A-D relationships, reff easily changes up to 30%. The proposed reff conversion method can be used to eliminate the inconsistency of assumptions that made in a cloud retrieval algorithm and a forward radiative transfer model. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 6952 Radar atmospheric physics; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; Lidar; radar; 0480 Remote sensing; 0317 Chemical kinetic and photochemical properties; area-diameter (A-D); effective radius; ice particle shape; mass-diameter (m-D)
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Winker, David; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Mace, Gerald G.; Painemal, David; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Miller, Walter F.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, D. Winker, T. L'Ecuyer, G. G. Mace, D. Painemal, S. Sun-Mack, Y. Chen, W. F. Miller, 2017: Cloud Occurrences and Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) from CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) and CloudSat Radar-Lidar (RL) Products. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(16), 8852–8884. doi: 10.1002/2017JD026725. Two kinds of cloud products obtained from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared and analyzed in this study; Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) product and CloudSat radar-lidar (RL) products such as GEOPROF-LIDAR and FLXHR-LIDAR. Compared to GEOPROF-LIDAR, low-level (< 1 km) cloud occurrences in CCCM are larger over tropical oceans because the CCCM algorithm uses a more relaxed threshold of Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) score for CALIPSO vertical feature mask (VFM) product. In contrast, mid-level (1–8 km) cloud occurrences in GEOPROF-LIDAR are larger than CCCM at high latitudes (> 40°). The difference occurs when hydrometeors are detected by CALIPSO lidar but are undetected by CloudSat radar. In the comparison of cloud radiative effects (CREs), global mean differences between CCCM and FLXHR-LIDAR are mostly smaller than 5 W m-2, while noticeable regional differences are found. For example, CCCM shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) CREs are larger than FXLHR-LIDAR along the west coasts of Africa and America because the GEOPROF-LIDAR algorithm misses shallow marine boundary layer clouds. In addition, FLXHR-LIDAR SW CREs are larger than CCCM counterpart over tropical oceans away from the west coasts of America. Over midlatitude storm-track regions, CCCM SW and LW CREs are larger than FLXHR-LIDAR counterpart. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 6952 Radar atmospheric physics; CERES; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 7847 Radiation processes; 8040 Remote sensing; CCCM; cloud occurence; CRE; FLXHR-LIDAR; GEOPROF-LIDAR
Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Liang, Lusheng; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Loeb, N. G., H. Wang, L. Liang, S. Kato, F. G. Rose, 2017: Surface energy budget changes over Central Australia during the early 21st century drought. International Journal of Climatology, 37(1), 159–168. doi: 10.1002/joc.4694. Satellite observations are used to investigate surface energy budget variability over central Australia during the early 21st century drought. Over a large expanse of open shrubland and savanna, surface albedo exhibits a multiyear increase of 0.06 during the drought followed by a sharp decline of 0.08 after heavy rainfall in 2010 broke the drought. The surface albedo variations are associated with increased normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during wet years before and after the drought and decreased NDVI during drought years. During the worst drought years (2002–2009), the surface albedo increase is most pronounced in the shortwave infrared region (wavelengths between 1 and 3 µm), implying soil moisture content variability is the likely cause of the albedo changes. At interannual timescales, surface albedo variability is associated with near-surface soil moisture, controlled by episodic precipitation events, whereas the multiyear increase in surface albedo is more closely linked with decreases in soil moisture in deeper surface layers. In addition to a higher surface albedo and lower soil moisture content during the drought, the observations show less evaporation, enhanced reflected shortwave radiation, increased upward emission of thermal infrared radiation, lower downwelling longwave (LW) radiation, reduced net total downward radiation, and higher sensible heating compared with the rainy period following the drought. Upward emission of thermal infrared radiation decreases sharply after the drought with increased surface evaporation. However, the surface energy budget changes during the worst drought years show a stronger relationship between upward emission of thermal radiation and reflected shortwave flux. During this period, evaporative fraction is extremely low and surface albedo is steadily increasing. In such extreme conditions, the surface albedo appears to modulate surface upward LW radiation, preventing it from getting too high. The change in upward LW radiation thus represents a negative feedback as it offsets further decreases in surface net radiation. albedo; radiation; energy budget; Precipitation; drought; Latent heat; Sensible heat
Scott, Ryan C.; Lubin, Dan; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Kato, SeijiScott, R. C., D. Lubin, A. M. Vogelmann, S. Kato, 2017: West Antarctic Ice Sheet cloud cover and surface radiation budget from NASA A-Train satellites. J. Climate, 30(16), 6151–6170. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0644.1. Clouds are an essential parameter of the surface energy budget influencing the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) response to atmospheric warming and net contribution to global sea-level rise. A four-year record of NASA A-Train cloud observations is combined with surface radiation measurements to quantify the WAIS radiation budget and constrain the three-dimensional occurrence frequency, thermodynamic phase partitioning, and surface radiative effect of clouds over West Antarctica (WA). The skill of satellite-modeled radiative fluxes is confirmed through evaluation against measurements at four Antarctic sites (WAIS Divide Ice Camp, Neumayer, Syowa, and Concordia Stations). Due to perennial high-albedo snow and ice cover, cloud infrared emission dominates over cloud solar reflection/absorption leading to a positive net all-wave cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface, with all monthly means and 99.15% of instantaneous CRE values exceeding zero. The annual-mean CRE at theWAIS surface is 34 W m−2, representing a significant cloud-induced warming of the ice sheet. Low-level liquid-containing clouds, including thin liquid water clouds implicated in radiative contributions to surface melting, are widespread and most frequent in WA during the austral summer. In summer, clouds warm the WAIS by 26 W m−2, on average, despite maximum offsetting shortwave CRE. Glaciated cloud systems are strongly linked to orographic forcing, with maximum incidence on the WAIS continuing downstream along the Transantarctic Mountains.
Smith, William L.; Hansen, Christy; Bucholtz, Anthony; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beckley, Matthew; Corbett, Joseph G.; Cullather, Richard I.; Hines, Keith M.; Hofton, Michelle; Kato, Seiji; Lubin, Dan; Moore, Richard H.; Segal Rosenhaimer, Michal; Redemann, Jens; Schmidt, Sebastian; Scott, Ryan; Song, Shi; Barrick, John D.; Blair, J. Bryan; Bromwich, David H.; Brooks, Colleen; Chen, Gao; Cornejo, Helen; Corr, Chelsea A.; Ham, Seung-Hee; Kittelman, A. Scott; Knappmiller, Scott; LeBlanc, Samuel; Loeb, Norman G.; Miller, Colin; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Rabine, David; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.; Pilewskie, Peter; Shinozuka, Yohei; Spangenberg, Douglas; Stackhouse, Paul; Taylor, Patrick; Thornhill, K. Lee; van Gilst, David; Winstead, EdwardSmith, W. L., C. Hansen, A. Bucholtz, B. E. Anderson, M. Beckley, J. G. Corbett, R. I. Cullather, K. M. Hines, M. Hofton, S. Kato, D. Lubin, R. H. Moore, M. Segal Rosenhaimer, J. Redemann, S. Schmidt, R. Scott, S. Song, J. D. Barrick, J. B. Blair, D. H. Bromwich, C. Brooks, G. Chen, H. Cornejo, C. A. Corr, S. Ham, A. S. Kittelman, S. Knappmiller, S. LeBlanc, N. G. Loeb, C. Miller, L. Nguyen, R. Palikonda, D. Rabine, E. A. Reid, J. A. Richter-Menge, P. Pilewskie, Y. Shinozuka, D. Spangenberg, P. Stackhouse, P. Taylor, K. L. Thornhill, D. van Gilst, E. Winstead, 2017: Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment: The Arctic Radiant Energy System during the Critical Seasonal Ice Transition. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98(7), 1399-1426. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00277.1. AbstractThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)?s Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) acquired unique aircraft data on atmospheric radiation and sea ice properties during the critical late summer to autumn sea ice minimum and commencement of refreezing. The C-130 aircraft flew 15 missions over the Beaufort Sea between 4 and 24 September 2014. ARISE deployed a shortwave and longwave broadband radiometer (BBR) system from the Naval Research Laboratory; a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from the University of Colorado Boulder; the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) from the NASA Ames Research Center; cloud microprobes from the NASA Langley Research Center; and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) laser altimeter system from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These instruments sampled the radiant energy exchange between clouds and a variety of sea ice scenarios, including prior to and after refreezing began. The most critical and unique aspect of ARISE mission planning was to coordinate the flight tracks with NASA Cloud and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensor observations in such a way that satellite sensor angular dependence models and derived top-of-atmosphere fluxes could be validated against the aircraft data over large gridbox domains of order 100?200 km. This was accomplished over open ocean, over the marginal ice zone (MIZ), and over a region of heavy sea ice concentration, in cloudy and clear skies. ARISE data will be valuable to the community for providing better interpretation of satellite energy budget measurements in the Arctic and for process studies involving ice?cloud?atmosphere energy exchange during the sea ice transition period.
Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Dong, Shengtao; Chen, Feng; Kato, Seiji; Taylor, Patrick C.Xu, K., T. Wong, S. Dong, F. Chen, S. Kato, P. C. Taylor, 2017: Cloud object analysis of CERES Aqua observations of tropical and subtropical cloud regimes: Evolution of cloud object size distributions during the Madden–Julian Oscillation. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 188, 148–158. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.008. In this study, we analyze cloud object data from the Aqua satellite between July 2006 and June 2010 that are matched with the real-time multivariate Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) index to examine the impact of MJO evolution on the evolutions of the size distributions of cloud object types. These types include deep convective (DC), cirrostratus, shallow cumulus, stratocumulus and overcast-stratus. A cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. It is found that the cloud object size distributions of some phases depart greatly from the 8-phase combined distribution at large cloud-object diameters. The large-size group of cloud objects contributes to most of the temporal variations during the MJO evolution. For deep convective and cirrostratus cloud objects, there is a monotonic increase in both the number and footprint of large objects from the depressed to mature phases, which is attributed to the development and maturing of deep convection and anvils. The largest increase in the mean diameter during the mature phases that lasts to the early dissipating phase is related to growth of anvil clouds and is accompanied by moderate decreases in small-size objects. For shallow cumulus, the large objects decrease in number at the mature phases, but increase in number for both sizes before the mature phase. The opposite is true for the large overcast-stratus objects. The temporal evolution of large stratocumulus objects is similar to that of deep convective and cirrostratus object types except for peaking slightly earlier. CERES; Aqua observations; cloud regimes; Cloud size distribution; Madden-Julian Oscillation
Yu, L.; Adler, R.; Huffman, G.; Jin, X.; Kato, S.; Loeb, N.; Stackhouse, P.; Weller, R.; Wilber, A.Yu, L., R. Adler, G. Huffman, X. Jin, S. Kato, N. Loeb, P. Stackhouse, R. Weller, A. Wilber, 2017: Ocean surface heat and momentum fluxes [In "State of the Climate in 2016"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97(8), S75-S79. doi: 10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.


Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Hill, P. G.; Furtado, K.; Williams, K. D.; Field, P. R.; Manners, J. C.; Hyder, P.; Kato, S.Bodas-Salcedo, A., P. G. Hill, K. Furtado, K. D. Williams, P. R. Field, J. C. Manners, P. Hyder, S. Kato, 2016: Large contribution of supercooled liquid clouds to the solar radiation budget of the Southern Ocean. J. Climate, 29(11), 4213–4228. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0564.1. The Southern ocean is a critical region for global climate, yet large cloud and solar radiation biases over the Southern Ocean are a long-standing problem in climate models and are poorly understood, leading to biases in simulated sea-surface-temperatures. In this study we show that supercooled liquid clouds are central to understanding and simulating the Southern Ocean environment. We use a combination of satellite observational data and detailed radiative transfer calculations to quantify the impact of cloud phase and cloud vertical structure on the reflected solar radiation in the southern hemisphere summer. We find that clouds with supercooled liquid tops dominate the population of liquid clouds. The observations show that clouds with supercooled liquid tops contribute between 27% and 38% to the total reflected solar radiation between 40°S and 70°S, and climate models are found to poorly simulate these clouds. Our results quantify the importance of supercooled liquid clouds in the Southern Ocean environment, and highlight the need to improve our understanding of the physical processes that control these clouds in order to improve their simulation in numerical models. This is not only important for improving the simulation of present-day climate and climate variability, but also relevant for increasing our confidence in climate feedback processes and future climate projections.
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.Ham, S., S. Kato, F. G. Rose, 2016: Correction of ocean hemispherical spectral reflectivity for longwave irradiance computations. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 171, 57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.12.003. This study demonstrates that upward infrared irradiances have negative modeling biases when the ocean hemispherical spectral reflectivity is used. The biases increase with increasing air temperature and with decreasing water vapor amount. Spectral biases in the surface upward longwave irradiance from 4 μm to 80 μm are between −0.4 and 0 W m−2 μm−1, while longwave broadband biases are between −2 and −1 W m−2. The negative biases stem from surface-reflected component because an irradiance radiative transfer model ignores the correlation between the downward radiance and directional reflectivity. Therefore, a positive correction factor to the hemispherical spectral reflectivity for the irradiance radiative transfer model is needed. A simple parameterization using an anisotropic factor for downward radiances is developed to correct reflectivity for various atmospheric conditions. longwave; Irradiance; Directional reflectivity; Hemispherical reflectivity; Reflectivity correction factor
Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Thorsen, Tyler J.Kato, S., K. Xu, T. Wong, N. G. Loeb, F. G. Rose, K. E. Trenberth, T. J. Thorsen, 2016: Investigation of the residual in column integrated atmospheric energy balance using cloud objects. J. Climate, 29(20), 7435–7452. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0782.1. Observationally-based atmospheric energy balance is analyzed using Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES)-derived TOA and surface irradiance, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)-derived precipitation, dry static and kinetic energy tendency and divergence estimated from ERA-Interim, and surface sensible heat flux from SeaFlux. The residual tends to be negative over tropics and positive over mid-latitudes. A negative residual implies that precipitation rate is too small, divergence is too large, or radiative cooling is too large. The residual of atmospheric energy is spatially and temporally correlated with cloud objects to identify cloud types associated with the residual. Spatially, shallow cumulus, cirrostratus, and deep convective cloud object occurrence are positively correlated with the absolute value of the residual. The temporal correlation coefficient between the number of deep convective cloud objects and individual energy components, net atmospheric irradiance, precipitation rate, and the sum of dry static and kinetic energy divergence and their tendency over western Pacific are, respectively, 0.84, 0.95, and 0.93. However, when all energy components are added, the atmospheric energy residual over tropical Pacific is temporally correlated well with the number of shallow cumulus cloud objects over tropical Pacific. Because shallow cumulus alters not enough atmospheric energy compared to the residual, these suggest 1) if retrieval errors associated with deep convective clouds are causing the column integrated atmospheric energy residual, the errors vary among individual deep convective clouds, and 2) it is possible that the residual is associated with processes in which shallow cumulus clouds affect deep convective clouds and hence atmospheric energy budget over tropical western Pacific.
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, SeijiOreopoulos, L., N. Cho, D. Lee, S. Kato, 2016: Radiative effects of global MODIS cloud regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(5), 2299–2317. doi: 10.1002/2015JD024502. We update previously published Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 data set. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux data sets. Our results clearly show that the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave, and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles, to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance data sets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations. clouds; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3359 Radiative processes; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; MODIS; Cloud radiative effects; 3360 Remote sensing; cloud regimes; a-train; 0319 Cloud optics
Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Dong, Shengtao; Chen, Feng; Kato, Seiji; Taylor, Patrick C.Xu, K., T. Wong, S. Dong, F. Chen, S. Kato, P. C. Taylor, 2016: Cloud Object Analysis of CERES Aqua Observations of Tropical and Subtropical Cloud Regimes: Four-Year Climatology. J. Climate, 29(5), 1617-1638. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00836.1. Four distinct types of cloud objects—tropical deep convection, boundary layer cumulus, stratocumulus, and overcast stratus—were previously identified from CERES Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Six additional types of cloud objects—cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, transitional altocumulus, and solid altocumulus—are identified from CERES Aqua satellite data in this study. The selection criteria for the 10 cloud object types are based on CERES footprint cloud fraction and cloud-top pressure, as well as cloud optical depth for the high-cloud types. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The data are analyzed according to cloud object types, sizes, regions, and associated environmental conditions. The frequency of occurrence and probability density functions (PDFs) of selected physical properties are produced for the July 2006–June 2010 period. It is found that deep convective and boundary layer types dominate the total population while the six new types other than cirrostratus do not contribute much in the tropics and subtropics. There are pronounced differences in the size spectrum between the types, with the largest ones being of deep convective type and with stratocumulus and overcast types over the ocean basins off west coasts. The summary PDFs of radiative and cloud physical properties differ greatly among the size categories. For boundary layer cloud types, the differences come primarily from the locations of cloud objects: for example, coasts versus open oceans. They can be explained by considerable variations in large-scale environmental conditions with cloud object size, which will be further qualified in future studies.
Zuidema, Paquita; Chang, Ping; Medeiros, Brian; Kirtman, Ben P.; Mechoso, Roberto; Schneider, Edwin K.; Toniazzo, Thomas; Richter, Ingo; Small, R. Justin; Bellomo, Katinka; Brandt, Peter; de Szoeke, Simon; Farrar, J. Thomas; Jung, Eunsil; Kato, Seiji; Li, Mingkui; Patricola, Christina; Wang, Zaiyu; Wood, Robert; Xu, ZhaoZuidema, P., P. Chang, B. Medeiros, B. P. Kirtman, R. Mechoso, E. K. Schneider, T. Toniazzo, I. Richter, R. J. Small, K. Bellomo, P. Brandt, S. de Szoeke, J. T. Farrar, E. Jung, S. Kato, M. Li, C. Patricola, Z. Wang, R. Wood, Z. Xu, 2016: Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97(12), 2305-2327. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1. Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys, for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.


Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Barker, Howard W.; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, SunnyHam, S., S. Kato, H. W. Barker, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, 2015: Improving the modelling of short-wave radiation through the use of a 3D scene construction algorithm. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 141(690), 1870-1883. doi: 10.1002/qj.2491. Active satellite sensors, such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat, provide cloud properties that are not available from passive sensors, such as MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While active sensors provide vertical profiles of clouds, their spatial coverage is limited to their narrow, nadir ground-track. As a result, estimation of radiation by combining active sensors and broadband instrument has limitations due to their different spatial coverages. This study uses a scene construction algorithm (SCA) and MODIS data to extend two-dimensional (2D) nadir cloud profiles into the cross-track direction, and examines how the resulting constructed 3D cloud fields improve simulation of solar radiative transfer. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiances are used as references to assess the improvements. While use of constructed 3D cloud fields only slightly impacts mean-bias errors for instantaneous 20 km CERES footprint-averaged top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, reductions in random errors are about 40%. The largest improvements in TOA radiance simulation are for clouds with small-scale horizontal inhomogeneity such as stratocumulus and cumulus. In contrast, uniform clouds such as nimbostratus, and deep convective clouds (Dc) show little response to the SCA. The impact of using the SCA on instantaneous surface irradiances is significant for stratocumulus and cumulus, but weak for nimbostratus and Dc. Conversely, SCA significantly influences atmospheric absorption and heating rates for nimbostratus and Dc. Differences in TOA radiances simulated by 1D and 3D transfer models are smaller than differences due to use of only the 2D nadir cross-sections and the 3D constructed fields. This is because of smoothing of 3D radiative effects when averaged up to CERES footprints. For surface irradiance and atmospheric absorption, however, differences simulated by 1D and 3D transfer models are more comparable to differences that stem from use of 2D and 3D cloud information. CERES; CloudSat; CALIPSO; independent column approximation (ICA); scene construction algorithm (SCA); three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, D. A. Rutan, F. G. Rose, 2015: Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 93(6), 597-612. doi: 10.2151/jmsj.2015-048. NASA’s Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances. CERES; radiation budget; climate data
L’Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.; Olson, W.; Lin, B.; Kato, S.; Clayson, C. A.; Wood, E.; Sheffield, J.; Adler, R.; Huffman, G.; Bosilovich, M.; Gu, G.; Robertson, F.; Houser, P. R.; Chambers, D.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Fetzer, E.; Liu, W. T.; Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Clark, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Hilburn, K.L’Ecuyer, T. S., H. K. Beaudoing, M. Rodell, W. Olson, B. Lin, S. Kato, C. A. Clayson, E. Wood, J. Sheffield, R. Adler, G. Huffman, M. Bosilovich, G. Gu, F. Robertson, P. R. Houser, D. Chambers, J. S. Famiglietti, E. Fetzer, W. T. Liu, X. Gao, C. A. Schlosser, E. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier, K. Hilburn, 2015: The Observed State of the Energy Budget in the Early Twenty-First Century. J. Climate, 28(21), 8319-8346. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00556.1. New objectively balanced observation-based reconstructions of global and continental energy budgets and their seasonal variability are presented that span the golden decade of Earth-observing satellites at the start of the twenty-first century. In the absence of balance constraints, various combinations of modern flux datasets reveal that current estimates of net radiation into Earth’s surface exceed corresponding turbulent heat fluxes by 13–24 W m−2. The largest imbalances occur over oceanic regions where the component algorithms operate independent of closure constraints. Recent uncertainty assessments suggest that these imbalances fall within anticipated error bounds for each dataset, but the systematic nature of required adjustments across different regions confirm the existence of biases in the component fluxes. To reintroduce energy and water cycle closure information lost in the development of independent flux datasets, a variational method is introduced that explicitly accounts for the relative accuracies in all component fluxes. Applying the technique to a 10-yr record of satellite observations yields new energy budget estimates that simultaneously satisfy all energy and water cycle balance constraints. Globally, 180 W m−2 of atmospheric longwave cooling is balanced by 74 W m−2 of shortwave absorption and 106 W m−2 of latent and sensible heat release. At the surface, 106 W m−2 of downwelling radiation is balanced by turbulent heat transfer to within a residual heat flux into the oceans of 0.45 W m−2, consistent with recent observations of changes in ocean heat content. Annual mean energy budgets and their seasonal cycles for each of seven continents and nine ocean basins are also presented. Radiative fluxes; Energy budget/balance; satellite observations; Climatology; Surface fluxes; Heat budgets/fluxes
Rutan, David A.; Kato, Seiji; Doelling, David R.; Rose, Fred G.; Nguyen, Le Trang; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Loeb, Norman G.Rutan, D. A., S. Kato, D. R. Doelling, F. G. Rose, L. T. Nguyen, T. E. Caldwell, N. G. Loeb, 2015: CERES Synoptic Product: Methodology and Validation of Surface Radiant Flux. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 32(6), 1121-1143. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00165.1. AbstractThe Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Synoptic (SYN1deg), edition 3, product provides climate-quality global 3-hourly 1° × 1°gridded top of atmosphere, in-atmosphere, and surface radiant fluxes. The in-atmosphere surface fluxes are computed hourly using a radiative transfer code based upon inputs from Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 3-hourly geostationary (GEO) data, and meteorological assimilation data from the Goddard Earth Observing System. The GEO visible and infrared imager calibration is tied to MODIS to ensure uniform MODIS-like cloud properties across all satellite cloud datasets. Computed surface radiant fluxes are compared to surface observations at 85 globally distributed land (37) and ocean buoy (48) sites as well as several other publicly available global surface radiant flux data products. Computed monthly mean downward fluxes from SYN1deg have a bias (standard deviation) of 3.0 W m−2 (5.7%) for shortwave and −4.0 W m−2 (2.9%) for longwave compared to surface observations. The standard deviation between surface downward shortwave flux calculations and observations at the 3-hourly time scale is reduced when the diurnal cycle of cloud changes is explicitly accounted for. The improvement is smaller for surface downward longwave flux owing to an additional sensitivity to boundary layer temperature/humidity, which has a weaker diurnal cycle compared to clouds. radiative transfer; satellite observations; Climate records; Surface fluxes
Stephens, Graeme L.; O'Brien, Denis; Webster, Peter J.; Pilewski, Peter; Kato, Seiji; Li, Jui-linStephens, G. L., D. O'Brien, P. J. Webster, P. Pilewski, S. Kato, J. Li, 2015: The albedo of Earth. Reviews of Geophysics, 53(1), 141–163. doi: 10.1002/2014RG000449. The fraction of the incoming solar energy scattered by Earth back to space is referred to as the planetary albedo. This reflected energy is a fundamental component of the Earth's energy balance, and the processes that govern its magnitude, distribution, and variability shape Earth's climate and climate change. We review our understanding of Earth's albedo as it has progressed to the current time and provide a global perspective of our understanding of the processes that define it. Joint analyses of surface solar flux data that are a complicated mix of measurements and model calculations with top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux measurements from current orbiting satellites yield a number of surprising results including (i) the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (NH, SH) reflect the same amount of sunlight within ~ 0.2 W m−2. This symmetry is achieved by increased reflection from SH clouds offsetting precisely the greater reflection from the NH land masses. (ii) The albedo of Earth appears to be highly buffered on hemispheric and global scales as highlighted by both the hemispheric symmetry and a remarkably small interannual variability of reflected solar flux (~0.2% of the annual mean flux). We show how clouds provide the necessary degrees of freedom to modulate the Earth's albedo setting the hemispheric symmetry. We also show that current climate models lack this same degree of hemispheric symmetry and regulation by clouds. The relevance of this hemispheric symmetry to the heat transport across the equator is discussed. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; albedo; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3359 Radiative processes; Solar radiation; Energy balance
Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, MingTaylor, P. C., S. Kato, K. Xu, M. Cai, 2015: Covariance between Arctic sea ice and clouds within atmospheric state regimes at the satellite footprint level. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(24), 12656–12678. doi: 10.1002/2015JD023520. Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and midtropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500 m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations. 1610 Atmosphere; sea ice; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; 0750 Sea ice; 3339 Ocean/atmosphere interactions; 1631 Land/atmosphere interactions; Arctic clouds; sea ice-cloud interaction
Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Schär, Christoph; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Kato, Seiji; Rutan, David; Ammann, Christof; Wood, Eric F.; König-Langlo, GertWild, M., D. Folini, M. Z. Hakuba, C. Schär, S. I. Seneviratne, S. Kato, D. Rutan, C. Ammann, E. F. Wood, G. König-Langlo, 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Climate Dynamics, 44(11-12), 3393-3429. doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z. The energy budgets over land and oceans are still afflicted with considerable uncertainties, despite their key importance for terrestrial and maritime climates. We evaluate these budgets as represented in 43 CMIP5 climate models with direct observations from both surface and space and identify substantial biases, particularly in the surface fluxes of downward solar and thermal radiation. These flux biases in the various models are then linearly related to their respective land and ocean means to infer best estimates for present day downward solar and thermal radiation over land and oceans. Over land, where most direct observations are available to constrain the surface fluxes, we obtain 184 and 306 Wm−2 for solar and thermal downward radiation, respectively. Over oceans, with weaker observational constraints, corresponding estimates are around 185 and 356 Wm−2. Considering additionally surface albedo and emissivity, we infer a surface absorbed solar and net thermal radiation of 136 and −66 Wm−2 over land, and 170 and −53 Wm−2 over oceans, respectively. The surface net radiation is thus estimated at 70 Wm−2 over land and 117 Wm−2 over oceans, which may impose additional constraints on the poorly known sensible/latent heat flux magnitudes, estimated here near 32/38 Wm−2 over land, and 16/100 Wm−2 over oceans. Estimated uncertainties are on the order of 10 and 5 Wm−2 for most surface and TOA fluxes, respectively. By combining these surface budgets with satellite-determined TOA budgets we quantify the atmospheric energy budgets as residuals (including ocean to land transports), and revisit the global mean energy balance. Climatology; radiation budget; CMIP5; Oceanography; Geophysics/Geodesy; Global climate models; Global energy balance; Surface and satellite observations


Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Barker, Howard W.; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, SunnyHam, S., S. Kato, H. W. Barker, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, 2014: Effects of 3-D clouds on atmospheric transmission of solar radiation: Cloud type dependencies inferred from A-train satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(2), 943–963. doi: 10.1002/2013JD020683. Three-dimensional (3-D) effects on broadband shortwave top of atmosphere (TOA) nadir radiance, atmospheric absorption, and surface irradiance are examined using 3-D cloud fields obtained from one hour's worth of A-train satellite observations and one-dimensional (1-D) independent column approximation (ICA) and full 3-D radiative transfer simulations. The 3-D minus ICA differences in TOA nadir radiance multiplied by π, atmospheric absorption, and surface downwelling irradiance, denoted as πΔI, ΔA, and ΔT, respectively, are analyzed by cloud type. At the 1 km pixel scale, πΔI, ΔA, and ΔT exhibit poor spatial correlation. Once averaged with a moving window, however, better linear relationships among πΔI, ΔA, and ΔT emerge, especially for moving windows larger than 5 km and large θ0. While cloud properties and solar geometry are shown to influence the relationships amongst πΔI, ΔA, and ΔT, once they are separated by cloud type, their linear relationships become much stronger. This suggests that ICA biases in surface irradiance and atmospheric absorption can be approximated based on ICA biases in nadir radiance as a function of cloud type. CERES; MODIS; CloudSat; CALIPSO; 3D; ICA
Liu, C.; Yang, P.; Minnis, P.; Loeb, N.; Kato, S.; Heymsfield, A.; Schmitt, C.Liu, C., P. Yang, P. Minnis, N. Loeb, S. Kato, A. Heymsfield, C. Schmitt, 2014: A two-habit model for the microphysical and optical properties of ice clouds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14(13), 19545-19586. doi: 10.5194/acpd-14-19545-2014. To provide a better representation of natural ice clouds, a novel ice cloud model containing two particle habits is developed. The microphysical and optical properties of the two-habit model (THM) are compared with both laboratory and in situ measurements, and its performance in downstream satellite remote sensing applications is tested. The THM assumes an ice cloud to be an ensemble of hexagonal columns and twenty-element aggregates, and to have specific habit fractions at each particle size. The ice water contents and median mass diameters calculated based on the THM closely agree with in situ measurements made during 11 field campaigns. In this study, the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice crystals are calculated with a combination of the invariant imbedding T-matrix, pseudo-spectral time domain, and improved geometric-optics methods over an entire range of particle sizes. The phase functions, calculated based on the THM, show excellent agreement with counterparts from laboratory and in situ measurements and from satellite retrievals. For downstream applications in the retrieval of cloud microphysical and optical properties from MODIS observations, the THM presents excellent spectral consistency; specifically, the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses based on the visible/near infrared bands and the thermal infrared bands agree quite well. Furthermore, a comparison between the polarized reflectivities observed by the PARASOL satellite and from theoretical simulations illustrates that the THM can be used to represent ice cloud polarization properties.
Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Kato, Seiji; Wang, WeijieLoeb, N. G., D. A. Rutan, S. Kato, W. Wang, 2014: Observing Interannual Variations in Hadley Circulation Atmospheric Diabatic Heating and Circulation Strength. J. Climate, 27(11), 4139-4158. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00656.1. AbstractSatellite and reanalysis data are used to observe interannual variations in atmospheric diabatic heating and circulation within the ascending and descending branches of the Hadley circulation (HC) during the past 12 yr. The column-integrated divergence of dry static energy (DSE) and kinetic energy is inferred from satellite-based observations of atmospheric radiation, precipitation latent heating, and reanalysis-based surface sensible heat flux for monthly positions of the HC branches, determined from a mass weighted zonal mean meridional streamfunction analysis. Mean surface radiative fluxes inferred from satellite and surface measurements are consistent to 1 W m−2 ( Energy budget/balance; satellite observations; Atmospheric circulation; Cloud radiative effects; ENSO; Interannual variability
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, Seiji; Huffman, George J.Oreopoulos, L., N. Cho, D. Lee, S. Kato, G. J. Huffman, 2014: An examination of the nature of global MODIS cloud regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(13), 2013JD021409. doi: 10.1002/2013JD021409. We introduce global cloud regimes (previously also referred to as “weather states”) derived from cloud retrievals that use measurements by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The regimes are obtained by applying clustering analysis on joint histograms of retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness. By employing a compositing approach on data sets from satellites and other sources, we examine regime structural and thermodynamical characteristics. We establish that the MODIS cloud regimes tend to form in distinct dynamical and thermodynamical environments and have diverse profiles of cloud fraction and water content. When compositing radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System instrument and surface precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project, we find that regimes with a radiative warming effect on the atmosphere also produce the largest implied latent heat. Taken as a whole, the results of the study corroborate the usefulness of the cloud regime concept, reaffirm the fundamental nature of the regimes as appropriate building blocks for cloud system classification, clarify their association with standard cloud types, and underscore their distinct radiative and hydrological signatures. Remote sensing; cloud modeling; 3337 Global climate models; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; MODIS; 3360 Remote sensing; cloud regimes
Painemal, David; Kato, Seiji; Minnis, PatrickPainemal, D., S. Kato, P. Minnis, 2014: Boundary layer regulation in the southeast Atlantic cloud microphysics during the biomass burning season as seen by the A-train satellite constellation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(19), 2014JD022182. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022182. Solar radiation absorption by biomass burning aerosols has a strong warming effect over the southeast Atlantic. Interactions between the overlying smoke aerosols and low-level cloud microphysics and the subsequent albedo perturbation are, however, generally ignored in biomass burning radiative assessments. In this study, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) are combined with Aqua satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–EOS (AMSR-E), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to assess the effect of variations in the boundary layer height and the separation distance between the cloud and aerosol layers on the cloud microphysics. The merged data analyzed at a daily temporal resolution suggest that overlying smoke aerosols modify cloud properties by decreasing cloud droplet size despite an increase in the cloud liquid water as boundary layer deepens, north of 5°S. These changes are controlled by the proximity of the aerosol layer to the cloud top rather than increases in the column aerosol load. The correlations are unlikely driven by meteorological factors, as three predictors of cloud variability, lower tropospheric stability, surface winds, and mixing ratio suggest that cloud effective radius, cloud top height, and liquid water path should correlate positively. Because cloud effective radius anticorrelates with cloud liquid water over the region with large microphysical changes—north of 5°S—the overall radiative consequence at the top of the atmosphere is a strong albedo susceptibility, equivalent to a 3% albedo increase due to a 10% decrease in cloud effective radius. This albedo enhancement partially offsets the aerosol solar absorption. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of accounting for the indirect effect of smoke aerosols in the cloud microphysics when estimating the radiative impact of the biomass burning at the top of the atmosphere. 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3311 Clouds and aerosols; Cloud microphysics; Biomass burning; Radiative response; marine boundary layer; Southeast Atlantic
Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Kato, Seiji; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Taylor, Patrick C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.Phojanamongkolkij, N., S. Kato, B. A. Wielicki, P. C. Taylor, M. G. Mlynczak, 2014: A Comparison of Climate Signal Trend Detection Uncertainty Analysis Methods. J. Climate, 27(9), 3363-3376. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00400.1. AbstractTwo climate signal trend analysis methods are the focus of this paper. The uncertainty of trend estimate from these two methods is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Several theoretically and randomly generated series of white noise, first-order autoregressive and second-order autoregressive, are explored. The choice of method that is most appropriate for the time series of interest depends upon the autocorrelation structure of the series. If the structure has its autocorrelation coefficients decreased with increasing lags (i.e., an exponential decay pattern), then the method of Weatherhead et al. is adequate. If the structure exhibits a decreasing sinusoid pattern of coefficient with lags (or a damped sinusoid pattern) or a mixture of both exponential decay and damped sinusoid patterns, then the method of Leroy et al. is recommended. The two methods are then applied to the time series of monthly and globally averaged top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances for the reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave regions, using radiance observations made by Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments during March 2000 through June 2011. Examination of the autocorrelation structures indicates that the reflected shortwave region has an exponential decay pattern, while the longwave region has a mixture of exponential decay and damped sinusoid patterns. Therefore, it is recommended that the method of Weatherhead et al. is used for the series of reflected shortwave irradiances and that the method of Leroy et al. is used for the series of emitted longwave irradiances. Model comparison; Climate records; Forecasting techniques; Statistical forecasting
Shrestha, Alok K.; Kato, Seiji; Wong, Takmeng; Rutan, David A.; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Smith, G. Louis; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Minnis, Patrick; Fernandez, Jose R.Shrestha, A. K., S. Kato, T. Wong, D. A. Rutan, W. F. Miller, F. G. Rose, G. L. Smith, K. M. Bedka, P. Minnis, J. R. Fernandez, 2014: Unfiltering Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner Radiances Using the CERES Algorithm and Its Evaluation with Nonscanner Observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31(4), 843-859. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00072.1. AbstractThe NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner measured broadband shortwave, longwave, and total radiances from February 1985 through January 1987. These scanner radiances are reprocessed using the more recent Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) unfiltering algorithm. The scene information, including cloud properties, required for reprocessing is derived using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data on board NOAA-9, while no imager data were used in the original ERBE unfiltering. The reprocessing increases the NOAA-9 ERBE scanner unfiltered longwave radiances by 1.4%–2.0% during daytime and 0.2%–0.3% during nighttime relative to those derived from the ERBE unfiltering algorithm. Similarly, the scanner unfiltered shortwave radiances increase by ~1% for clear ocean and land and decrease for all-sky ocean, land, and snow/ice by ~1%. The resulting NOAA-9 ERBE scanner unfiltered radiances are then compared with NOAA-9 nonscanner irradiances by integrating the ERBE scanner radiance over the nonscanner field of view. The comparison indicates that the integrated scanner radiances are larger by 0.9% for shortwave and 0.7% smaller for longwave. A sensitivity study shows that the one-standard-deviation uncertainties in the agreement are ±2.5%, ±1.2%, and ±1.8% for the shortwave, nighttime longwave, and daytime longwave irradiances, respectively. The NOAA-9 and ERBS nonscanner irradiances are also compared using 2 years of data. The comparison indicates that the NOAA-9 nonscanner shortwave, nighttime longwave, and daytime longwave irradiances are 0.3% larger, 0.6% smaller, and 0.4% larger, respectively. The longer observational record provided by the ERBS nonscanner plays a critical role in tying the CERES-like NOAA-9 ERBE scanner dataset from the mid-1980s to the present-day CERES scanner data record. Remote sensing; satellite observations; Climate records; Filtering techniques
Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Kato, Seiji; Yi, Yuhong; Gibson, Sharon C.; Heck, Patrick W.; Winker, David M.Sun-Mack, S., P. Minnis, Y. Chen, S. Kato, Y. Yi, S. C. Gibson, P. W. Heck, D. M. Winker, 2014: Regional Apparent Boundary Layer Lapse Rates Determined from CALIPSO and MODIS Data for Cloud-Height Determination. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 53(4), 990-1011. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-081.1. AbstractReliably determining low-cloud heights using a cloud-top temperature from satellite infrared imagery is often challenging because of difficulties in characterizing the local thermal structure of the lower troposphere with the necessary precision and accuracy. To improve low-cloud-top height estimates over water surfaces, various methods have employed lapse rates anchored to the sea surface temperature to replace the boundary layer temperature profiles that relate temperature to altitude. To further improve low-cloud-top height retrievals, collocated Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data taken from July 2006 to June 2007 and from June 2009 to May 2010 (2 yr) for single-layer low clouds are used here with numerical weather model analyses to develop regional mean boundary apparent lapse rates. These parameters are designated as apparent lapse rates because they are defined using the cloud-top temperatures from satellite retrievals and surface skin temperatures; they do not represent true lapse rates. Separate day and night, seasonal mean lapse rates are determined for 10′-resolution snow-free land, water, and coastal regions, while zonally dependent lapse rates are developed for snow/ice-covered areas for use in the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Edition 4 cloud property retrieval system (CCPRS-4). The derived apparent lapse rates over ice-free water range from 5 to 9 K km−1 with mean values of about 6.9 and 7.2 K km−1 during the day and night, respectively. Over land, the regional values vary from 3 to 8 K km−1, with day and night means of 5.5 and 6.2 K km−1, respectively. The zonal-mean apparent lapse rates over snow and ice surfaces generally decrease with increasing latitude, ranging from 4 to 8 K km−1. All of the CCPRS-4 lapse rates were used along with five other lapse rate techniques to retrieve cloud-top heights for 2 months of independent Aqua MODIS data. When compared with coincident CALIPSO data for October 2007, the mean cloud-top height differences between CCPRS-4 and CALIPSO during the daytime (nighttime) are 0.04 ± 0.61 km (0.10 ± 0.62 km) over ice-free water, −0.06 ± 0.85 km (−0.01 ± 0.83 km) over snow-free land, and 0.38 ± 0.95 km (0.03 ± 0.92 km) over snow-covered areas. The CCPRS-4 regional monthly means are generally unbiased and lack spatial error gradients seen in the comparisons for most of the other techniques. Over snow-free land, the regional monthly-mean errors range from −0.28 ± 0.74 km during daytime to 0.04 ± 0.78 km at night. The water regional monthly means are, on average, 0.04 ± 0.44 km less than the CALIPSO values during day and night. Greater errors are realized for snow-covered regions. Overall, the CCPRS-4 lapse rates yield the smallest RMS differences for all times of day over all areas both for individual retrievals and monthly means. These new regional apparent lapse rates, used in processing CERES Edition 4 data, should provide more accurate low-cloud-type heights than previously possible using satellite imager data. clouds; Cloud retrieval; Boundary layer


Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, F. G. Rose, D. R. Doelling, D. A. Rutan, T. E. Caldwell, L. Yu, R. A. Weller, 2013: Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances. J. Climate, 26(9), 2719-2740. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00436.1. AbstractThe estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents a method to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthly mean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W m−2 for downward shortwave and −2.5 (7.1) W m−2 for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and −1.7 (7.8) W m−2 for downward shortwave and −1.0 (7.6) W m−2 for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias and RMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations. Radiative fluxes; Energy budget/balance; Radiation budgets; radiative transfer
Li, J.-L. F.; Waliser, D. E.; Stephens, G.; Lee, Seungwon; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman; Ma, Hsi-YenLi, J. F., D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, S. Lee, T. L'Ecuyer, S. Kato, N. Loeb, H. Ma, 2013: Characterizing and understanding radiation budget biases in CMIP3/CMIP5 GCMs, contemporary GCM, and reanalysis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(15), 8166-8184. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50378. We evaluate the annual mean radiative shortwave flux downward at the surface (RSDS) and reflected shortwave (RSUT) and radiative longwave flux upward at top of atmosphere (RLUT) from the twentieth century Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and Phase 3 (CMIP3) simulations as well as from the NASA GEOS5 model and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications analysis. The results show that a majority of the models have significant regional biases in the annual means of RSDS, RLUT, and RSUT, with biases from −30 to 30 W m−2. While the global average CMIP5 ensemble mean biases of RSDS, RLUT, and RSUT are reduced compared to CMIP3 by about 32% (e.g., −6.9 to 2.5 W m−2), 43%, and 56%, respectively. This reduction arises from a more complete cancellation of the pervasive negative biases over ocean and newly larger positive biases over land. In fact, based on these biases in the annual mean, Taylor diagram metrics, and RMSE, there is virtually no progress in the simulation fidelity of RSDS, RLUT, and RSUT fluxes from CMIP3 to CMIP5. A persistent systematic bias in CMIP3 and CMIP5 is the underestimation of RSUT and overestimation of RSDS and RLUT in the convectively active regions of the tropics. The amount of total ice and liquid atmospheric water content in these areas is also underestimated. We hypothesize that at least a part of these persistent biases stem from the common global climate model practice of ignoring the effects of precipitating and/or convective core ice and liquid in their radiation calculations. 3337 Global climate models; radiation; 1855 Remote sensing; CMIP3; CMIP5
Radkevich, Alexander; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Rutan, David; Kato, SeijiRadkevich, A., K. Khlopenkov, D. Rutan, S. Kato, 2013: A Supplementary Clear-Sky Snow and Ice Recognition Technique for CERES Level 2 Products. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30(3), 557-568. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00100.1. AbstractIdentification of clear-sky snow and ice is an important step in the production of cryosphere radiation budget products, which are used in the derivation of long-term data series for climate research. In this paper, a new method of clear-sky snow/ice identification for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. The algorithm’s goal is to enhance the identification of snow and ice within the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data after application of the standard CERES scene identification scheme. The input of the algorithm uses spectral radiances from five MODIS bands and surface skin temperature available in the CERES Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) product. The algorithm produces a cryosphere rating from an aggregated test: a higher rating corresponds to a more certain identification of the clear-sky snow/ice-covered scene. Empirical analysis of regions of interest representing distinctive targets such as snow, ice, ice and water clouds, open waters, and snow-free land selected from a number of MODIS images shows that the cryosphere rating of snow/ice targets falls into 95% confidence intervals lying above the same confidence intervals of all other targets. This enables recognition of clear-sky cryosphere by using a single threshold applied to the rating, which makes this technique different from traditional branching techniques based on multiple thresholds. Limited tests show that the established threshold clearly separates the cryosphere rating values computed for the cryosphere from those computed for noncryosphere scenes, whereas individual tests applied consequently cannot reliably identify the cryosphere for complex scenes. Remote sensing; sea ice; classification; snow; Ice sheets; Spectral analysis/models/distribution
Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas; Smith, G. Louis; Kato, SeijiRose, F. G., D. A. Rutan, T. Charlock, G. L. Smith, S. Kato, 2013: An Algorithm for the Constraining of Radiative Transfer Calculations to CERES-Observed Broadband Top-of-Atmosphere Irradiance. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30(6), 1091-1106. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00058.1. AbstractNASA’s Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is responsible for operation and data processing of observations from scanning radiometers on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, Aqua, and Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellites. The clouds and radiative swath (CRS) CERES data product contains irradiances computed using a radiative transfer model for nearly all CERES footprints in addition to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from observed radiances by CERES instruments. This paper describes a method to constrain computed irradiances by CERES-derived TOA irradiances using Lagrangian multipliers. Radiative transfer model inputs include profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, aerosols and ozone, surface temperature and albedo, and up to two sets of cloud properties for a CERES footprint. Those inputs are adjusted depending on predefined uncertainties to match computed TOA and CERES-derived TOA irradiance. Because CERES instantaneous irradiances for an individual footprint also include uncertainties, primarily due to the conversion of radiance to irradiance using anisotropic directional models, the degree of the constraint depends on CERES-derived TOA irradiance as well. As a result of adjustment, TOA computed-minus-observed standard deviations are reduced from 8 to 4 W m−2 for longwave irradiance and from 15 to 6 W m−2 for shortwave irradiance. While agreement of computed TOA with CERES-derived irradiances improves, comparisons with surface observations show that model constrainment to the TOA does not reduce computation bias error at the surface. After constrainment, shortwave down at the surface has an increased bias (standard deviation) of 1% (0.5%) and longwave increases by 0.2% (0.1%). Clear-sky changes are negligible.
Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J.; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C.O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jin, Z.; Jennings, D.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Knuteson, R.; Kopp, G.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Pilewskie, P.; Ramaswamy, V.; Revercomb, H.; Rice, J.; Roberts, Y.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Rose, F.; Sandford, S.; Shirley, E. L.; Smith, W.L.; Soden, B.; Speth, P. W.; Sun, W.; Taylor, P.C.; Tobin, D.; Xiong, X.Wielicki, B. A., D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. Taylor, D. Tobin, X. Xiong, 2013: Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 130308154356007. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00149.1.


Barker, H. W.; Kato, S.; Wehr, T.Barker, H. W., S. Kato, T. Wehr, 2012: Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data. Surveys in Geophysics, 33(3-4), 657-676. doi: 10.1007/s10712-011-9164-9. This study used realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 61 km wide by 14,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances were then computed by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and 1D independent column approximation modes. Results were averaged into 1,303 (50 km)2 domains. For domains with total cloud fractions A c < 0.7 top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedos tend to be largest for 3D transfer with differences increasing with solar zenith angle. Differences are largest for A c > 0.7 and characterized by small bias yet large random errors. Regardless of A c , differences between 3D and 1D transfer rarely exceed ±30 W m−2 for net TOA and surface fluxes and ±10 W m−2 for atmospheric absorption. Horizontal fluxes through domain sides depend on A c with ∼20% of cases exceeding ±30 W m−2; the largest values occur for A c > 0.7. Conversely, heating rate differences rarely exceed ±20%. As a cursory test of TOA radiative closure, fluxes produced by the 3D model were averaged up to (20 km)2 and compared to values measured by CERES. While relatively little attention was paid to optical properties of ice crystals and surfaces, and aerosols were neglected entirely, ∼30% of the differences between 3D model estimates and measurements fall within ±10 W m−2; this is the target agreement set for EarthCARE. This, coupled with the aforementioned comparison between 3D and 1D transfer, leads to the recommendation that EarthCARE employ a 3D transport model when attempting TOA radiative closure. cloud; Satellite; climate; CloudSat; radiation; EarthCARE; Geophysics/Geodesy; Astronomy, Observations and Techniques; Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations; Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System; Earth Sciences, general; The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, YanKato, S., N. G. Loeb, D. A. Rutan, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, W. F. Miller, Y. Chen, 2012: Uncertainty Estimate of Surface Irradiances Computed with MODIS-, CALIPSO-, and CloudSat-Derived Cloud and Aerosol Properties. Surveys in Geophysics, 33(3-4), 395-412. doi: 10.1007/s10712-012-9179-x. Differences of modeled surface upward and downward longwave and shortwave irradiances are calculated using modeled irradiance computed with active sensor-derived and passive sensor-derived cloud and aerosol properties. The irradiance differences are calculated for various temporal and spatial scales, monthly gridded, monthly zonal, monthly global, and annual global. Using the irradiance differences, the uncertainty of surface irradiances is estimated. The uncertainty (1σ) of the annual global surface downward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 7 W m−2 (out of 345 W m−2) and 4 W m−2 (out of 192 W m−2), after known bias errors are removed. Similarly, the uncertainty of the annual global surface upward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 3 W m−2 (out of 398 W m−2) and 3 W m−2 (out of 23 W m−2). The uncertainty is for modeled irradiances computed using cloud properties derived from imagers on a sun-synchronous orbit that covers the globe every day (e.g., moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer) or modeled irradiances computed for nadir view only active sensors on a sun-synchronous orbit such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation and CloudSat. If we assume that longwave and shortwave uncertainties are independent of each other, but up- and downward components are correlated with each other, the uncertainty in global annual mean net surface irradiance is 12 W m−2. One-sigma uncertainty bounds of the satellite-based net surface irradiance are 106 W m−2 and 130 W m−2. Geophysics/Geodesy; Astronomy, Observations and Techniques; Earth Sciences, general; Surface net irradiance; Surface radiative energy budget
Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Su, Wenying; Wong, Takmeng; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Norris, Joel R.; Huang, XiangleiLoeb, N. G., S. Kato, W. Su, T. Wong, F. G. Rose, D. R. Doelling, J. R. Norris, X. Huang, 2012: Advances in Understanding Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Variability from Satellite Observations. Surveys in Geophysics, 33(3-4), 359-385. doi: 10.1007/s10712-012-9175-1. This paper highlights how the emerging record of satellite observations from the Earth Observation System (EOS) and A-Train constellation are advancing our ability to more completely document and understand the underlying processes associated with variations in the Earth’s top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. Large-scale TOA radiation changes during the past decade are observed to be within 0.5 Wm−2 per decade based upon comparisons between Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua and other instruments. Tropical variations in emitted outgoing longwave (LW) radiation are found to closely track changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During positive ENSO phase (El Niño), outgoing LW radiation increases, and decreases during the negative ENSO phase (La Niña). The coldest year during the last decade occurred in 2008, during which strong La Nina conditions persisted throughout most of the year. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations show that the lower temperatures extended throughout much of the troposphere for several months, resulting in a reduction in outgoing LW radiation and an increase in net incoming radiation. At the global scale, outgoing LW flux anomalies are partially compensated for by decreases in midlatitude cloud fraction and cloud height, as observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer, respectively. CERES data show that clouds have a net radiative warming influence during La Niña conditions and a net cooling influence during El Niño, but the magnitude of the anomalies varies greatly from one ENSO event to another. Regional cloud-radiation variations among several Terra and A-Train instruments show consistent patterns and exhibit marked fluctuations at monthly timescales in response to tropical atmosphere-ocean dynamical processes associated with ENSO and Madden–Julian Oscillation. clouds; radiation budget; Geophysics/Geodesy; Astronomy, Observations and Techniques; Earth Sciences, general; Climate variability
Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Jr, Paul W. Stackhouse; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, TimothyStephens, G. L., J. Li, M. Wild, C. A. Clayson, N. Loeb, S. Kato, T. L'Ecuyer, P. W. S. Jr, M. Lebsock, T. Andrews, 2012: An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations. Nature Geoscience, 5(10), 691-696. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1580. Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm−2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation — that is, in the form of latent heat flux — and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface. View full text hydrology; Atmospheric science; Climate science; hydrogeology and limnology
Stephens, Graeme L.; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul W.; L’Ecuyer, Tristan; Kato, Seiji; Henderson, David S.Stephens, G. L., M. Wild, P. W. Stackhouse, T. L’Ecuyer, S. Kato, D. S. Henderson, 2012: The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation. J. Climate, 25(7), 2329-2340. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00262.1. AbstractFour different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because these synthesis fluxes have been assessed against observations, the global-mean values of these fluxes are deemed to be the most credible of the four different categories reviewed. The global, annual mean DLR lies between approximately 344 and 350 W m−2 with an error of approximately ±10 W m−2 that arises mostly from the uncertainty in atmospheric state that governs the estimation of the clear-sky emission. The authors conclude that the DLR derived from global climate models are biased low by approximately 10 W m−2 and even larger differences are found with respect to reanalysis climate data. The DLR inferred from a surface energy balance closure is also substantially smaller that the range found from synthesis products suggesting that current depictions of surface energy balance also require revision. The effect of clouds on the DLR, largely facilitated by the new cloud base information from the CloudSat radar, is estimated to lie in the range from 24 to 34 W m−2 for the global cloud radiative effect (all-sky minus clear-sky DLR). This effect is strongly modulated by the underlying water vapor that gives rise to a maximum sensitivity of the DLR to cloud occurring in the colder drier regions of the planet. The bottom of atmosphere (BOA) cloud effect directly contrast the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes that is maximum in regions of deepest and coldest clouds in the moist tropics. Energy budget/balance; Hydrologic cycle; Climatology; Energy transport; Planetary atmospheres


Barker, H. W.; Jerg, M. P.; Wehr, T.; Kato, S.; Donovan, D. P.; Hogan, R. J.Barker, H. W., M. P. Jerg, T. Wehr, S. Kato, D. P. Donovan, R. J. Hogan, 2011: A 3D cloud-construction algorithm for the EarthCARE satellite mission. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(657), 1042-1058. doi: 10.1002/qj.824. This article presents and assesses an algorithm that constructs 3D distributions of cloud from passive satellite imagery and collocated 2D nadir profiles of cloud properties inferred synergistically from lidar, cloud radar and imager data. It effectively widens the active–passive retrieved cross-section (RXS) of cloud properties, thereby enabling computation of radiative fluxes and radiances that can be compared with measured values in an attempt to perform radiative closure experiments that aim to assess the RXS. For this introductory study, A-train data were used to verify the scene-construction algorithm and only 1D radiative transfer calculations were performed. The construction algorithm fills off-RXS recipient pixels by computing sums of squared differences (a cost function F) between their spectral radiances and those of potential donor pixels/columns on the RXS. Of the RXS pixels with F lower than a certain value, the one with the smallest Euclidean distance to the recipient pixel is designated as the donor, and its retrieved cloud properties and other attributes such as 1D radiative heating rates are consigned to the recipient. It is shown that both the RXS itself and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery can be reconstructed extremely well using just visible and thermal infrared channels. Suitable donors usually lie within 10 km of the recipient. RXSs and their associated radiative heating profiles are reconstructed best for extensive planar clouds and less reliably for broken convective clouds. Domain-average 1D broadband radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) for (21 km)2 domains constructed from MODIS, CloudSat and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data agree well with coincidental values derived from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiances: differences between modelled and measured reflected shortwave fluxes are within ±10 W m−2 for ∼35% of the several hundred domains constructed for eight orbits. Correspondingly, for outgoing longwave radiation ∼65% are within ±10 W m−2. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society and Crown in the right of Canada cloud; radiative transfer; Satellite; EarthCARE
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan; Rutan, David A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Winker, David M.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Collins, William D.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, W. F. Miller, Y. Chen, D. A. Rutan, G. L. Stephens, N. G. Loeb, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, D. M. Winker, T. P. Charlock, P. W. Stackhouse, K. Xu, W. D. Collins, 2011: Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D19), D19209. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016050. One year of instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface shortwave and longwave irradiances are computed using cloud and aerosol properties derived from instruments on the A-Train Constellation: the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). When modeled irradiances are compared with those computed with cloud properties derived from MODIS radiances by a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud algorithm, the global and annual mean of modeled instantaneous TOA irradiances decreases by 12.5 W m−2 (5.0%) for reflected shortwave and 2.5 W m−2 (1.1%) for longwave irradiances. As a result, the global annual mean of instantaneous TOA irradiances agrees better with CERES-derived irradiances to within 0.5W m−2 (out of 237.8 W m−2) for reflected shortwave and 2.6W m−2 (out of 240.1 W m−2) for longwave irradiances. In addition, the global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward longwave irradiances increases by 3.6 W m−2 (1.0%) when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. The global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward shortwave irradiances also increases by 8.6 W m−2 (1.6%), indicating that the net surface irradiance increases when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. Increasing the surface downward longwave irradiance is caused by larger cloud fractions (the global annual mean by 0.11, 0.04 excluding clouds with optical thickness less than 0.3) and lower cloud base heights (the global annual mean by 1.6 km). The increase of the surface downward longwave irradiance in the Arctic exceeds 10 W m−2 (∼4%) in winter because CALIOP and CPR detect more clouds in comparison with the cloud detection by the CERES cloud algorithm during polar night. The global annual mean surface downward longwave irradiance of 345.4 W m−2 is estimated by combining the modeled instantaneous surface longwave irradiance computed with CALIOP and CPR cloud profiles with the global annual mean longwave irradiance from the CERES product (AVG), which includes the diurnal variation of the irradiance. The estimated bias error is −1.5 W m−2 and the uncertainty is 6.9 W m−2. The uncertainty is predominately caused by the near-surface temperature and column water vapor amount uncertainties. clouds; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 1610 Atmosphere; 1640 Remote sensing; aerosols; radiation; surface energy budget
Sun, Wenbo; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Lukashin, Constantine; Kato, Seiji; Liu, ZhaoyanSun, W., B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, Z. Liu, 2011: On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D17), D17101. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016153. In this paper, the temperature and humidity profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are evaluated with outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements. Using collocated CERES and AIRS measurements from A-train observations, the temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS are evaluated by using them in a radiative transfer model and comparing the modeled OLR with that from the CERES. Both the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements are used to ensure a strict clear-sky condition over the CERES fields-of-view (FOVs) in the evaluation. The paper shows that model-computed OLRs using the AIRS temperature and humidity profiles and surface skin temperature agree well with CERES data for daytime oceans, indicating good accuracies of both the AIRS and the CERES products. However, it is found that a certain discrepancy exists between OLR from the modeling with the AIRS atmospheric profiles and that from the CERES measurements. For nighttime oceans, the AIRS temperature and humidity profiles and surface skin temperature likely have significant bias errors in tropical and subtropical areas that are due to undetected thin cirrus clouds. The inconsistency of the CERES and the AIRS product in OLR needs to be understood for reliable earth radiation studies. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 1640 Remote sensing; 0305 Aerosols and particles; CERES; AIRS; outgoing longwave radiation; 0350 Pressure, density, and temperature; temperature and humidity profiles
Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Kato, Seiji; Lin, Bing; Lukashin, Constantine; Hu, YongxiangSun, W., G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, Y. Hu, 2011: A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, and AIRS data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D22), D22207. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016422. Subvisual cirrus clouds that are defined as those whose optical thickness is less than ∼0.3 are found in ∼50% of global observations. Passive remote-sensing instruments, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), generally fail to detect these optically thin clouds. The launch of NASA's Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite provides an unprecedented ability to detect thin cloud layers globally. Also, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides accurate measurements of top-of-atmosphere radiation. By using CERES, MODIS, and CALIPSO measurements in a synergistic manner, a quantitative assessment of the influence of subvisual clouds on the Earth's shortwave (SW) radiation is accomplished. The difference between clear-sky radiation flux and the flux obtained with the presence of subvisual clouds clearly shows the cooling effect of subvisual clouds in the SW. The subvisual clouds increase the diurnal mean reflected SW flux by ∼2.5 W m−2. The subvisual clouds' effect on outgoing longwave radiation is also studied using a radiative-transfer model. The model results show that a layer of subvisual clouds having optical thickness of 0.1 can have a warming effect of ∼15 W m−2. These clouds can also affect the polarization of the reflected SW radiation and the accuracy of aerosol retrieval with satellite measurements. This work demonstrates that the study of subvisual clouds is necessary for an accurate and detailed understanding of Earth-atmosphere radiation. 0305 Aerosols and particles; CERES; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3311 Clouds and aerosols; 3359 Radiative processes; MODIS; CALIPSO; radiation effect; subvisual clouds


Hudson, Stephen R.; Kato, Seiji; Warren, Stephen G.Hudson, S. R., S. Kato, S. G. Warren, 2010: Evaluating CERES angular distribution models for snow using surface reflectance observations from the East Antarctic Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D3), D03101. doi: 10.1029/2009JD012624. Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) is a satellite-based remote sensing system designed to monitor the Earth's radiation budget. In this paper we examine uncertainties in the angular distribution models (ADMs) used by CERES over permanently snow covered surfaces with clear skies. These ADMs are a key part of the CERES data processing algorithms, used to convert the observed upwelling radiance to an estimate of the upwelling hemispheric flux. We model top-of-atmosphere anisotropic reflectance factors using an atmospheric radiative transfer model with a lower boundary condition based on extensive reflectance observations made at Dome C, Antarctica. The model results and subsequent analysis show that the CERES operational clear-sky permanent-snow ADMs are appropriate for use over Dome C, with differences of less than 5% between the model results and the ADMs at most geometries used by CERES operationally. We show that the uncertainty introduced into the flux estimates through the use of the modeled radiances used in the ADM development is small when the fluxes are averaged over time and space. Finally, we show that variations in the angular distribution of radiance at the top of the atmosphere due to atmospheric variability over permanently snow covered regions are in most cases unlikely to mask the real variations in flux caused by these atmospheric variations. Remote sensing; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 3359 Radiative processes; Solar radiation; snow; 0758 Remote sensing; 0736 Snow; 9310 Antarctica
Hudson, Stephen R.; Warren, Stephen G.; Kato, SeijiHudson, S. R., S. G. Warren, S. Kato, 2010: A comparison of shortwave reflectance over the East Antarctic Plateau observed by CERES to that estimated from surface reflectance observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D20), D20110. doi: 10.1029/2010JD013912. Spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance of snow were measured at Dome C on the East Antarctic Plateau for wavelengths of 350–2400 nm and solar zenith angles of 52°–87°. A parameterization of bidirectional reflectance, based on those measurements, is used as the lower boundary condition in the atmospheric radiation model SBDART to calculate radiance and flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The model's atmospheric profile is based on radiosoundings at Dome C and ozonesoundings at the South Pole. Computed TOA radiances are integrated over wavelength for comparison with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave channel. CERES radiance observations and flux estimates from four clear days in January 2004 and January 2005 from within 200 km of Dome C are compared with the TOA radiances and fluxes computed for the same solar zenith angle and viewing geometry, providing 11,000 comparisons. The measured radiance and flux are lower than the computed values. The median difference is about 7% for CERES on Terra, and 9% on Aqua. Sources of uncertainty in the model and observations are examined in detail and suggest that the measured values should be less than the computed values, but only by 1.7% ± 4%. The source of the discrepancy of about 6% cannot be identified here; however, the modeled values do agree with observations from another satellite instrument (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer), suggesting that the CERES calibration must be considered a possible source of the discrepancy. Remote sensing; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 3359 Radiative processes; Solar radiation; 0758 Remote sensing; 0736 Snow; Antarctica; 9310 Antarctica
Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.Kato, S., S. Sun-Mack, W. F. Miller, F. G. Rose, Y. Chen, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, 2010: Relationships among cloud occurrence frequency, overlap, and effective thickness derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat merged cloud vertical profiles. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D4), D00H28. doi: 10.1029/2009JD012277. A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profiles derived from the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and cloud profiling radar. The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical profiles can be related by a cloud overlap matrix when the correlation length of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data (July 2006) support these assumptions, although the correlation length sometimes increases with separation distance when the cloud top height is large. The data also show that the correlation length depends on cloud top hight and the maximum occurs when the cloud top height is 8 to 10 km. The cloud correlation length is equivalent to the decorrelation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth (2000) when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same. The simple relationships derived in this study can be used to estimate the top-of-atmosphere irradiance difference caused by cloud fraction, uppermost cloud top, and cloud thickness vertical profile differences. clouds; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 1610 Atmosphere; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; overlap; vertical profile


Kato, SeijiKato, S., 2009: Interannual Variability of the Global Radiation Budget. J. Climate, 22(18), 4893-4907. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2795.1. Abstract Interannual variability of the global radiation budget, regions that contribute to its variability, and what limits albedo variability are investigated using Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data taken from March 2000 through February 2004. Area-weighted mean top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflected shortwave, longwave, and net irradiance standard deviations computed from monthly anomalies over a 1° × 1° region are 9.6, 7.6, and 7.6 W m−2, respectively. When standard deviations are computed from global monthly anomalies, they drop to 0.5, 0.4, and 0.4 W m−2, respectively. Clouds are mostly responsible for the variation. Regions with a large standard deviation of TOA shortwave and longwave irradiance at TOA are the tropical western and central Pacific, which is caused by shifting from La Niña to El Niño during this period. However, a larger standard deviation of 300–1000-hPa thickness anomalies occurs in the polar region instead of the tropics. The correlation coefficient between atmospheric net irradiance anomalies and 300–1000-hPa thickness anomalies is negative. These indicate that temperature anomalies in the atmosphere are mostly a result of anomalies in longwave and dynamical processes that transport energy poleward, instead of albedo anomalies by clouds directly affecting temperature anomalies in the atmosphere. With simple zonal-mean thermodynamic energy equations it is demonstrated that temperature anomalies decay exponentially with time by longwave emission and by dynamical processes. As a result, the mean meridional temperature gradient is maintained. Therefore, mean meridional circulations are not greatly altered by albedo anomalies on an annual time scale, which in turn provides small interannual variability of the global mean albedo. albedo; Radiation budgets; Climatology; Interannual variability; Energy transport
Kato, Seiji; Marshak, AlexanderKato, S., A. Marshak, 2009: Solar zenith and viewing geometry-dependent errors in satellite retrieved cloud optical thickness: Marine stratocumulus case. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114(D1), D01202. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010579. The error in the domain-averaged cloud optical thickness retrieved from satellite-based imagers is investigated using a cloud field generated by a cloud model and a 3D radiative transfer model. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal geometry for the optical thickness retrieval and quantify the error. The cloud field used in the simulation is a relatively uniform (retrieved shape parameter of a gamma distribution averaged over all simulated viewing and solar zenith angles is 18) and nearly isotropic stratocumulus field. The retrieved cloud cover with a 1-km pixel resolution is 100%. The domain-averaged optical thickness error is separated into two terms, the error caused by an assumption of a horizontally uniform cloud over a 1-km pixel (internal variability) and error caused by neglecting the horizontal flux through the boundary of subpixels (external variability). For the cloud field used in this study, the external variability term increases with solar zenith angle and the sign changes from negative to positive while the internal variability term is generally negative and becomes more negative as the solar zenith angle increases. At a small solar zenith angle, therefore, both terms are negative, but the error partially cancels at a large solar zenith angle. When the solar zenith angle is less than 30°, both terms are small; the error in the viewing zenith angle and domain-averaged cloud optical thickness derived from the relative azimuth angle smaller than 150 is less than 10%. However, if the optical thickness is derived from nadir view only for overhead sun, the domain-averaged optical thickness is underestimated by more than 10%. When the solar zenith angle increases to 60°, the internal variability term exceeds 10%, especially viewed from the forward direction, but the domain and viewing zenith angle averaged optical thickness error can be less than 10% in the backward direction. When the solar zenith angle is 70°, both terms are greater than 10%. The shape parameter of a gamma distribution derived from retrieved optical thicknesses increases with the viewing zenith angle but decreases with solar zenith angle. On the basis of this simulation and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) viewing geometry and solar zenith angle at the sampling time over the northeastern Pacific, the error in the domain-averaged retrieved optical thickness of uniform stratocumulus over northeastern Pacific is less than 10% in March and September. atmosphere; clouds; Remote sensing; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 1640 Remote sensing; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction
Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.; Smith, G. Louis; Keyes, Dennis F.; Kato, Seiji; Manalo-Smith, Natividad; Wong, TakmengLoeb, N. G., B. A. Wielicki, D. R. Doelling, G. L. Smith, D. F. Keyes, S. Kato, N. Manalo-Smith, T. Wong, 2009: Toward Optimal Closure of the Earth's Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Budget. J. Climate, 22(3), 748-766. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2637.1. Abstract Despite recent improvements in satellite instrument calibration and the algorithms used to determine reflected solar (SW) and emitted thermal (LW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, a sizeable imbalance persists in the average global net radiation at the TOA from satellite observations. This imbalance is problematic in applications that use earth radiation budget (ERB) data for climate model evaluation, estimate the earth’s annual global mean energy budget, and in studies that infer meridional heat transports. This study provides a detailed error analysis of TOA fluxes based on the latest generation of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) gridded monthly mean data products [the monthly TOA/surface averages geostationary (SRBAVG-GEO)] and uses an objective constrainment algorithm to adjust SW and LW TOA fluxes within their range of uncertainty to remove the inconsistency between average global net TOA flux and heat storage in the earth–atmosphere system. The 5-yr global mean CERES net flux from the standard CERES product is 6.5 W m−2, much larger than the best estimate of 0.85 W m−2 based on observed ocean heat content data and model simulations. The major sources of uncertainty in the CERES estimate are from instrument calibration (4.2 W m−2) and the assumed value for total solar irradiance (1 W m−2). After adjustment, the global mean CERES SW TOA flux is 99.5 W m−2, corresponding to an albedo of 0.293, and the global mean LW TOA flux is 239.6 W m−2. These values differ markedly from previously published adjusted global means based on the ERB Experiment in which the global mean SW TOA flux is 107 W m−2 and the LW TOA flux is 234 W m−2. Radiation budgets; satellite observations; Fluxes
Saunders, Will; Lawrence, Jon S.; Storey, John W. V.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Kato, Seiji; Minnis, Patrick; Winker, David M.; Liu, Guiping; Kulesa, CraigSaunders, W., J. S. Lawrence, J. W. V. Storey, M. C. B. Ashley, S. Kato, P. Minnis, D. M. Winker, G. Liu, C. Kulesa, 2009: Where Is the Best Site on Earth? Domes A, B, C, and F, and Ridges A and B. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 121(883), 976-992. doi: 10.1086/605780. ABSTRACT. The Antarctic plateau contains the best sites on earth for many forms of astronomy, but none of the existing bases was selected with astronomy as the primary motivation. In this article, we try to systematically compare the merits of potential observatory sites. We include South Pole, Domes A, C, and F, and also Ridge B (running northeast from Dome A), and what we call “Ridge A” (running southwest from Dome A). Our analysis combines satellite data, published results, and atmospheric models, to compare the boundary layer, weather, aurorae, airglow, precipitable water vapor, thermal sky emission, surface temperature, and the free atmosphere, at each site. We find that all Antarctic sites are likely to be compromised for optical work by airglow and aurorae. Of the sites with existing bases, Dome A is easily the best overall; but we find that Ridge A offers an even better site. We also find that Dome F is a remarkably good site. Dome C is less good as a thermal infrared or terahertz site, but would be able to take advantage of a predicted “OH hole” over Antarctica during spring.


Dong, Xiquan; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Xi, Baike; Hu, Yongxiang; Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Rose, Fred; Kato, Seiji; Charlock, Thomas; Minnis, PatrickDong, X., B. A. Wielicki, B. Xi, Y. Hu, G. G. Mace, S. Benson, F. Rose, S. Kato, T. Charlock, P. Minnis, 2008: Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D10), D10206. doi: 10.1029/2007JD009769. Atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle but is an extremely difficult quantity to measure directly. To investigate Acol, we have collocated satellite-surface observations for the optically thick Deep Convective Systems (DCS) at the Department of Energy Atmosphere Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites during the period of March 2000–December 2004. The surface data were averaged over a 2-h interval centered at the time of the satellite overpass, and the satellite data were averaged within a 1° × 1° area centered on the ARM sites. In the DCS, cloud particle size is important for top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo and Acol although the surface absorption is independent of cloud particle size. In this study, we find that the Acol in the tropics is ∼0.011 more than that in the middle latitudes. This difference, however, disappears, i.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value (∼0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation) in the optically thick limit (τ > 80). Comparing the observations with the NASA Langley modified Fu_Liou 2-stream radiative transfer model for optically thick cases, the difference between observed and model-calculated surface absorption, on average, is less than 0.01, but the model-calculated TOA albedo and Acol differ by 0.01 to 0.04, depending primarily on the cloud particle size observation used. The model versus observation discrepancies found are smaller than many previous studies and are just within the estimated error bounds. We did not find evidence for a large cloud absorption anomaly for the optically thick limit of extensive ice cloud layers. A more modest cloud absorption difference of 0.01 to 0.04 cannot yet be ruled out. The remaining uncertainty could be reduced with additional cases, and by reducing the current uncertainty in cloud particle size. 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3359 Radiative processes; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; 3314 Convective processes; radiation budget; DCS; SW radiation
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, D. A. Rutan, T. P. Charlock, 2008: Cloud Effects on the Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data. J. Climate, 21(17), 4223-4241. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI1982.1. Abstract The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference between the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from 3 yr of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of the cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of the mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low-level clouds, which tend to be stationary, it is postulated here that the meridional and vertical gradients of the cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by the dynamics of the atmosphere from the midlatitudes to the polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in the polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute toward increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from the midlatitudes to the polar regions through the atmosphere. energy budget; Cloud radiative effects; Irradiance


Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Manalo-Smith, N.; Doelling, D. R.Loeb, N. G., S. Kato, K. Loukachine, N. Manalo-Smith, D. R. Doelling, 2007: Angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System instrument on the Terra satellite. Part II: Validation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24(4), 564-584. doi: 10.1175/jtech1983.1. Errors in top- of- atmosphere ( TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System ( CERES) instrument due to uncertainties in radiance- to- flux conversion from CERES Terra angular distribution models ( ADMs) are evaluated through a series of consistency tests. These tests show that the overall bias in regional monthly mean shortwave ( SW) TOA flux is less than 0.2Wm(-2) and the regional RMS error ranges from 0.70 to 1.4 W m(-2). In contrast, SW TOA fluxes inferred using theoretical ADMs that assume clouds are plane parallel are overestimated by 3 - 4 W m(-2) and exhibit a strong latitudinal dependence. In the longwave ( LW), the bias error ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 W m(-2) and regional RMS errors remain smaller than 0.7 W m(-2). Global mean albedos derived from ADMs developed during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ( ERBE) and applied to CERES measurements show a systematic increase with viewing zenith angle of 4% - 8%, while albedos from the CERES Terra ADMs show a smaller increase of 1% - 2%. The LW fluxes from the ERBE ADMs show a systematic decrease with viewing zenith angle of 2% - 2.4%, whereas fluxes from the CERES Terra ADMs remain within 0.7% - 0.8% at all angles. Based on several months of multiangle CERES along- track data, the SW TOA flux consistency between nadir-and oblique- viewing zenith angles is generally 5% ( < 17 W m(-2)) over land and ocean and 9% ( 26 W m(-2)) in polar regions, and LW TOA flux consistency is approximate 3% ( 7 W m(-2)) over all surfaces. Based on these results and a theoretically derived conversion between TOA flux consistency and TOA flux error, the best estimate of the error in CERES TOA flux due to the radiance- to- flux conversion is 3% ( 10 W m(-2)) in the SW and 1.8% ( 3 - 5 W m(-2)) in the LW. Monthly mean TOA fluxes based on ERBE ADMs are larger than monthly mean TOA fluxes based on CERES Terra ADMs by 1.8 and 1.3 W m(-2) in the SW and LW, respectively.


Kato, Seiji; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Cheng, AnningKato, S., L. M. Hinkelman, A. Cheng, 2006: Estimate of satellite-derived cloud optical thickness and effective radius errors and their effect on computed domain-averaged irradiances. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D17), D17201. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006668. The process of retrieving cloud optical thickness and effective radius from radiances measured by satellite instruments is simulated to determine the error in both the retrieved properties and in the irradiances computed with them. The radiances at 0.64 μm and 3.7 μm are computed for three cloud fields (stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus) generated by large eddy simulation models. When overcast pixels are assumed and the horizontal flux is neglected in the retrieval process, the error in the domain-averaged retrieved optical thickness from nadir is 1% to −32% (1% to −27%) and the error in the retrieved effective radius is 0% to 67% (0% to 63%) for the solar zenith angle of 30° (50°). Using the radiance averaged over a 1 km size pixel also introduces error in the optical thickness because of the nonlinear relation between the reflected radiance and optical thickness. Both optical thickness and effective radius errors increase with increasing horizontal inhomogeneity. When the 0.64 μm albedo is computed with the independent column approximation using retrieved properties from nadir (oblique) view for a solar zenith angle of 50°, the error is −0.3% to 14% (−5% to −30%) relative to the albedo from 3-D radiative transfer computations with the true cloud properties. The albedo error occurs even though the radiance at one angle is forced to agree because a plane parallel cloud with a single value of optical thickness and effective radius cannot consistently match the radiance angular distribution. In addition, the error in the retrieved cloud properties contributes to the albedo error. When albedos computed with cloud properties derived from nadir and oblique views are averaged, the albedo error can partially cancel. The absolute error in the narrowband 0.64 μm (3.7 μm) albedo averaged over a 1° × 1° domain is less than 1.5% (0.6%), 5.0% (4.1%), and 7.1% (11%) in order of increasing inhomogeneity, when albedos computed with cloud properties derived from viewing zenith angles between 0° and 60° are averaged and when the solar zenith angle is between 10° and 50°. When the solar zenith angle is 70°, the error increases to up to +24% (+37%) for all three scenes. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3359 Radiative processes; radiation budget; remote sensing of clouds
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Francis, Jennifer A.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rutan, David A.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Sun-Mack, SzedungKato, S., N. G. Loeb, P. Minnis, J. A. Francis, T. P. Charlock, D. A. Rutan, E. E. Clothiaux, S. Sun-Mack, 2006: Seasonal and interannual variations of top-of-atmosphere irradiance and cloud cover over polar regions derived from the CERES data set. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(19), L19804. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026685. The daytime cloud fraction derived by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud algorithm using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances over the Arctic from March 2000 through February 2004 increases at a rate of 0.047 per decade. The trend is significant at an 80% confidence level. The corresponding top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave irradiances derived from CERES radiance measurements show less significant trend during this period. These results suggest that the influence of reduced Arctic sea ice cover on TOA reflected shortwave radiation is reduced by the presence of clouds and possibly compensated by the increase in cloud cover. The cloud fraction and TOA reflected shortwave irradiance over the Antarctic show no significant trend during the same period. 3311 Clouds and aerosols; 3359 Radiative processes; 1616 Climate variability; 3339 Ocean/atmosphere interactions
Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Kato, SeijiMace, G. G., S. Benson, S. Kato, 2006: Cloud radiative forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: 2. Vertical redistribution of radiant energy by clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D11), D11S91. doi: 10.1029/2005JD005922. Documentation of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represents a shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of climate model simulations. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail with observations. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we use measurements of cloud occurrence and structure together with a scheme to characterize the cloud microphysical and radiative properties to estimate the uncertainty in our ability to calculate the radiative forcing and effect of clouds at the top of atmosphere, the surface and within the atmosphere. We find that overcast clouds during 2000 tended to have a small net influence on the atmosphere (6 W m−2 ± 3 W m−2 of heating) with net TOA and surface cooling (25 W m−2 ± 3 W m−2 and 32 ± 3 W m−2, respectively). These statistics mask a significant redistribution of radiant energy within the atmosphere by clouds where low overcast clouds resulted in strong atmospheric cooling (37 W m−2 ± 9 W m−2), and thin high clouds resulted in warming (21 W m−2 ± 6 W m−2) suggesting that accurate prediction of the phasing of these cloud types within meteorological features is important for capturing the essential feedbacks by clouds to the general circulation. clouds; 3359 Radiative processes; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; climate; radiation; 3364 Synoptic-scale meteorology
Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Sonntag, Karen L.; Kato, Seiji; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Twohy, Cynthia H.; Poellot, Michael; Dong, Xiquan; Long, Charles; Zhang, Qiuqing; Doelling, David R.Mace, G. G., S. Benson, K. L. Sonntag, S. Kato, Q. Min, P. Minnis, C. H. Twohy, M. Poellot, X. Dong, C. Long, Q. Zhang, D. R. Doelling, 2006: Cloud radiative forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: 1. Technique, validation, and comparison to satellite-derived diagnostic quantities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D11), D11S90. doi: 10.1029/2005JD005921. It has been hypothesized that continuous ground-based remote sensing measurements from collocated active and passive remote sensors combined with regular soundings of the atmospheric thermodynamic structure can be combined to describe the effects of clouds on the clear sky radiation fluxes. We critically test that hypothesis in this paper and a companion paper (part 2). Using data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, we explore an analysis methodology that results in the characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric profile at time resolutions of 5 min and vertical resolutions of 90 m. The description includes thermodynamics and water vapor profile information derived by merging radiosonde soundings with ground-based data and continues through specification of the cloud layer occurrence and microphysical and radiative properties derived from retrieval algorithms and parameterizations. The description of the atmospheric physical state includes a calculation of the clear and cloudy sky solar and infrared flux profiles. Validation of the methodology is provided by comparing the calculated fluxes with top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface flux measurements and by comparing the total column optical depths to independently derived estimates. We find over a 1-year period of comparison in overcast uniform skies that the calculations are strongly correlated to measurements with biases in the flux quantities at the surface and TOA of less than 6% and median fractional errors ranging from 12% to as low as 2%. In the optical depth comparison for uniform overcast skies during the year 2000 where the optical depth varies over more than 3 orders of magnitude we find a mean positive bias of less than 1% and a 0.6 correlation coefficient. In addition to a case study where we examine the cloud radiative effects at the TOA, surface and atmosphere by a middle latitude cyclone, we examine the cloud top pressure and optical depth retrievals of ISCCP and LBTM over a period of 1 year. Using overcast periods from the year 2000, we find that the satellite algorithms tend to compare well with data overall but there is a tendency to bias cloud tops into the middle troposphere and underestimate optical depth in high optical depth events. clouds; Remote sensing; 3311 Clouds and aerosols; 3359 Radiative processes; 3310 Clouds and cloud feedbacks; 3394 Instruments and techniques; radiation
Michalsky, J. J.; Anderson, G. P.; Barnard, J.; Delamere, J.; Gueymard, C.; Kato, S.; Kiedron, P.; McComiskey, A.; Ricchiazzi, P.Michalsky, J. J., G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, P. Ricchiazzi, 2006: Shortwave radiative closure studies for clear skies during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D14), D14S90. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006341. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large aerosol intensive observation period (AIOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this AIOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are in the worst case 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 1.9%. 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 0305 Aerosols and particles; 0394 Instruments and techniques; 3359 Radiative processes; diffuse shortwave irradiance; direct shortwave irradiance; radiative transfer models


Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Crisp, David; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Anderson, G. P.; Berk, A.; Bonnel, B.; Boucher, O.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Chou, Ming-Dah; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Dubuisson, P.; Fomin, Boris; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Gautier, Catherine; Kato, Seiji; Laszlo, Istvan; Li, Z.; Mather, J. H.; Plana-Fattori, Artemio; Ramaswamy, V.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Shiren, Y.; Trishchenko, A.; Wiscombe, W.Halthore, R. N., D. Crisp, S. E. Schwartz, G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, B. Bonnel, O. Boucher, F. Chang, M. Chou, E. E. Clothiaux, P. Dubuisson, B. Fomin, Y. Fouquart, S. Freidenreich, C. Gautier, S. Kato, I. Laszlo, Z. Li, J. H. Mather, A. Plana-Fattori, V. Ramaswamy, P. Ricchiazzi, Y. Shiren, A. Trishchenko, W. Wiscombe, 2005: Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer codes and measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D11), D11206. doi: 10.1029/2004JD005293. Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16 radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud. The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1% (root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5% for a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is understandably much worse at 3% and 10% for dry and humid atmospheres, respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions. Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30°) than for a high SZA (75°). All models show about a 30% increase in broadband absorptance for 30° SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no enhancement in absorptance for a higher SZA of 75°, possibly due to water vapor line saturation in the atmosphere above the cloud. shortwave; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 0305 Aerosols and particles; 0321 Cloud/radiation interaction; 3311 Clouds and aerosols; model intercomparison; RT models
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, 2005: Top-of-atmosphere shortwave broadband observed radiance and estimated irradiance over polar regions from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on Terra. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D7), D07202. doi: 10.1029/2004JD005308. Empirical angular distribution models for estimating top-of-atmosphere shortwave irradiances from radiance measurements over permanent snow, fresh snow, and sea ice are developed using CERES measurements on Terra. Permanent snow angular distribution models depend on cloud fraction, cloud optical thickness, and snow brightness. Fresh snow and sea ice angular distribution models depend on snow and sea ice fraction, cloud fraction, cloud optical thickness, and snow and ice brightness. These classifications lead to 10 scene types for permanent snow and 25 scene types for fresh snow and sea ice. The average radiance over clear-sky permanent snow is more isotropic with satellite viewing geometry than that over overcast permanent snow. On average, the albedo of clear-sky permanent snow varies from 0.65 to 0.68 for solar zenith angles between 60° and 80°, while the corresponding albedo of overcast scenes varies from 0.70 to 0.73. Clear-sky permanent snow albedos over Antarctica estimated from two independent angular distribution models are consistent to within 0.6%, on average. Despite significant variability in sea ice optical properties with season, the estimated mean relative albedo error is −1.0% for very dark sea ice and 0.1% for very bright sea ice when albedos derived from different viewing angles are averaged. The estimated regional root-mean-square (RMS) relative albedo error is 5.6% and 2.6% when the sea ice angular distribution models are applied to a region that contains very dark and very bright sea ice, respectively. Similarly, the estimated relative albedo bias error for fresh snow is −0.1% for very dark snow scenes and 0.1% for very bright snow scenes. The estimated regional RMS relative albedo error is 3.5% and 5.0% when angular distribution models are applied to a region that contains very dark and very bright fresh snow, respectively. These error estimates are only due to angular distribution model error and do not include the error caused by scene identification. 1610 Atmosphere; 1640 Remote sensing; Shortwave radiation; 1635 Oceans; irradiance estimate; polar regions
Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Charlock, Thomas P.Kato, S., F. G. Rose, T. P. Charlock, 2005: Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Using Satellite-Derived Cloud Properties. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22(2), 146-164. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-1694.1. Abstract The respective errors caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation and the effective thickness approximation for computing the domain-averaged broadband shortwave irradiance are evaluated using cloud optical thicknesses derived from 1 h of radiance measurements by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) over footprints of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Domains are CERES footprints of which dimension varies approximately from 20 to 70 km, depending on the viewing zenith angle of the instruments. The average error in the top-of-atmosphere irradiance at a 30° solar zenith angle caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation is 6.1 W m−2 (0.005 albedo bias) with a one-layer overcast cloud where a positive value indicates an overestimate by the approximation compared with the irradiance computed using the independent column approximation. Approximately one-half of the error is due to deviations of optical thickness distributions from a gamma distribution and the other half of the error is due to other approximations in the model. The error increases to 14.7 W m−2 (0.012 albedo bias) when the computational layer dividing the cloud layer is increased to four. The increase is because of difficulties in treating the correlation of cloud properties in the vertical direction. Because the optical thickness under partly cloudy conditions, which contribute two-thirds of cloudy footprints, is smaller, the error is smaller than under overcast conditions; the average error for partly cloudy condition is −2.4 W m−2 (−0.002 albedo bias) at a 30° solar zenith angle. The corresponding average error caused by the effective thickness approximation is 0.5 W m−2 for overcast conditions and −21.5 W m−2 (−0.018 albedo bias) for partly cloudy conditions. Although the error caused by the effective thickness approximation depends strongly on the optical thickness, its average error under overcast conditions is smaller than the error caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation because the errors at small and large optical thicknesses cancel each other. Based on these error analyses, the daily average error caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream and effective thickness approximations is less than 2 W m−2.
Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Loukachine, Konstantin; Manalo-Smith, NatividadLoeb, N. G., S. Kato, K. Loukachine, N. Manalo-Smith, 2005: Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part I: Methodology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22(4), 338-351. doi: 10.1175/JTECH1712.1. Abstract The Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave, and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve the understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols, and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of the earth’s radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO)’s Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System (DAS) V4.0.3 product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS DAS V4.0.3 properties over the ocean, land, desert, and snow for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data are available on Terra than were available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.


Sun, Wenbo; Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, SeijiSun, W., N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, 2004: Estimation of instantaneous TOA albedo at 670 nm over ice clouds from POLDER multidirectional measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D2). doi: An algorithm that determines the 670-nm top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo of ice clouds over ocean using Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) multidirectional measurements is developed. A plane-parallel layer of ice cloud with various optical thicknesses and light scattering phase functions is assumed. For simplicity, we use a double Henyey-Greenstein phase function to approximate the volume-averaged phase function of the ice clouds. A multidirectional reflectance best-fit match between theoretical and POLDER reflectances is used to infer effective cloud optical thickness, phase function and TOA albedo. Sensitivity tests show that while the method does not provide accurate independent retrievals of effective cloud optical depth and phase function, TOA albedo retrievals are accurate to within ∼3% for both a single layer of ice clouds or a multilayer system of ice clouds and water clouds. When the method is applied to POLDER measurements and retrieved albedos are compared with albedos based on empirical angular distribution models (ADMs), zonal albedo differences are generally smaller than ∼3%. When albedos are compared with those on the POLDER-I ERB and Cloud product, the differences can reach ∼15% at small solar zenith angles. albedo; ice clouds; angular distribution model; POLDER multidirectional measurement


Kato, SeijiKato, S., 2003: Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 60(1), 182-193. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<0182:CODASI>2.0.CO;2. Abstract A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct irradiance into four components and treats the direct irradiance in two separate, clear and cloudy columns to account for the fact that clouds attenuate the direct irradiance more than clear sky. The horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in the cloudy column is treated by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation, which assumes that the optical thickness of clouds follows a gamma distribution. The algorithm inputs the cloud fraction, cumulative cloud fraction as a function of height, and a parameter expressing the shape of the probability density function of the cloud optical thickness distribution in addition to inputs required for a two-stream radiative transfer model. These cloud property inputs can be obtained using ground- and satellite-based instruments. Therefore, the algorithm can treat realistic cloud overlap features and horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in a framework of one-dimensional radiative transfer. Heating rates computed by the algorithm using cloud fields generated by cloud resolving models agree with those computed with a Monte Carlo model.
Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, 2003: Twilight Irradiance Reflected by the Earth Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements. J. Climate, 16(15), 2646-2650. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2646:TIRBTE>2.0.CO;2. Abstract The upward shortwave irradiance at the top of the atmosphere when the solar zenith angle is greater than 90° (twilight irradiance) is estimated from radiance measurements by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The irradiance decreases with solar zenith angle from 7.5 W m−2 at 90.5° to 0.6 W m−2 at 95.5°. The global and daily average twilight irradiance is 0.2 W m−2, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the daily and global average reflected irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. Therefore, the twilight irradiance can be neglected in global radiation budget estimate. The daily average twilight irradiance, however, can be more than 1 W m−2 at polar regions during seasons when the sun stays just below the horizon for a long period of time.
Loeb, Norman G.; Manalo-Smith, Natividad; Kato, Seiji; Miller, Walter F.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.Loeb, N. G., N. Manalo-Smith, S. Kato, W. F. Miller, S. K. Gupta, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, 2003: Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42(2), 240-265. doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0240:ADMFTO>2.0.CO;2. Abstract Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth–atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.


Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutledge, C. KenKato, S., N. G. Loeb, C. K. Rutledge, 2002: Estimate of top-of-atmosphere albedo for a molecular atmosphere over ocean using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 107(D19), 4396. doi: 10.1029/2001JD001309. The shortwave broadband albedo at the top of a molecular atmosphere over ocean between 40°N and 40°S is estimated using radiance measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. The albedo monotonically increases from 0.059 at a solar zenith angle of 10° to 0.107 at a solar zenith angle of 60°. The estimated uncertainty in the albedo is 3.5 × 10−3 caused by the uncertainty in CERES-derived irradiances, uncertainty in VIRS-derived aerosol optical thicknesses, variations in surface wind speed and variations in ozone and water vapor. The estimated uncertainty is similar in magnitude to the standard deviation of 0.003 that is derived from 72 areas which are divided by 20° latitude by 20° longitude grid boxes. The empirically estimated albedo is compared with the modeled albedo using a radiative transfer model combined with an ocean surface bidirectional reflectivity model. The modeled albedo with standard tropical atmosphere is 0.061 and 0.111 at the solar zenith angles of 10° and 60°, respectively. The empirically estimated albedo can be used to estimate the direct radiative effect of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere over oceans. 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes; 1640 Remote sensing; 0305 Aerosols and particles; 4264 Ocean optics; aerosol radiative forcing; molecular atmosphere; ocean surface reflectance; planetary albedo
Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, SeijiLoeb, N. G., S. Kato, 2002: Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument. J. Climate, 15(12), 1474-1484. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1474:TOADRE>2.0.CO;2. Abstract Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6 ± 1 W m–2. The magnitude is ≈2 W m–2 smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth (τ) retrievals inferred from 0.63-μm VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is ≈−32 W m–2 τ–1 over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches −25 to −30 W m–2. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear—it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g., sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g., due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is ≈1 W m–2 (≈20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and CERES “ERBE-like” products are a factor of 3–5 times larger.
Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji; Wielicki, Bruce A.Loeb, N. G., S. Kato, B. A. Wielicki, 2002: Defining Top-of-the-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies. J. Climate, 15(22), 3301-3309. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3301:DTOTAF>2.0.CO;2. Abstract To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth's surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth's tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of-view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1–2 W m−2. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative “top of atmosphere” for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W m−2 can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.


Haeffelin, Martial; Kato, Seiji; Smith, Amie M.; Rutledge, C. Ken; Charlock, Thomas P.; Mahan, J. RobertHaeffelin, M., S. Kato, A. M. Smith, C. K. Rutledge, T. P. Charlock, J. R. Mahan, 2001: Determination of the thermal offset of the Eppley precision spectral pyranometer. Applied Optics, 40(4), 472-484. doi: 10.1364/AO.40.000472. Eppley’s precision spectral pyranometer (PSP) is used in networks around the world to measure downwelling diffuse and global solar irradiance at the surface of the Earth. In recent years several studies have shown significant discrepancy between irradiances measured by pyranometers and those computed by atmospheric radiative transfer models. Pyranometer measurements have been questioned because observed diffuse irradiances sometimes are below theoretical minimum values for a pure molecular atmosphere, and at night the instruments often produce nonzero signals ranging between +5 and -10 W m-2. We install thermistor sondes in the body of a PSP as well as on its inner dome to monitor the temperature gradients within the instrument, and we operate a pyrgeometer (PIR) instrument side by side with the PSP. We derive a relationship between the PSP output and thermal radiative exchange by the dome and the detector and a relationship between the PSP output and the PIR thermopile output (net–IR). We determine the true PSP offset by quickly capping the instrument at set time intervals. For a ventilated and shaded PSP, the thermal offset can reach -15 W m-2 under clear skies, whereas it remains close to zero for low overcast clouds. We estimate the PSP thermal offset by two methods: (1) using the PSP temperatures and (2) using the PIR net–IR signal. The offset computed from the PSP temperatures yields a reliable estimate of the true offset (±1 W m-2). The offset computed from net–IR is consistent with the true offset at night and under overcast skies but predicts only part of the true range under clear skies. Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology; Thermal effects
Kato, Seiji; Mace, Gerald G.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Liljegren, James C.; Austin, Richard T.Kato, S., G. G. Mace, E. E. Clothiaux, J. C. Liljegren, R. T. Austin, 2001: Doppler Cloud Radar Derived Drop Size Distributions in Liquid Water Stratus Clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 58(19), 2895-2911. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2895:DCRDDS>2.0.CO;2. Abstract A cloud particle size retrieval algorithm that uses radar reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity obtained by a 35-GHz Doppler radar and liquid water path estimated from microwave radiometer radiance measurements is developed to infer the size distribution of stratus cloud particles. Assuming a constant, but unknown, number concentration with height, the algorithm retrieves the number concentration and vertical profiles of liquid water content and particle effective radius. A novel aspect of the retrieval is that it depends upon an estimated particle median radius vertical profile that is derived from a statistical model that relates size to variations in particle vertical velocity; the model posits that the median particle radius is proportional to the fourth root of the particle velocity variance if the radii of particles in a parcel of zero vertical velocity is neglected. The performance of the retrieval is evaluated using data from two stratus case study days 1.5 and 8.0 h in temporal extent. Aircraft in situ microphysical measurements were available on one of the two days and the retrieved number concentrations and effective radii are consistent with them. The retrieved liquid water content and effective radius increase with height for both stratus cases, which agree with earlier studies. Error analyses suggest that the error in the liquid water content vanishes and the magnitudes of the fractional error in the effective radius and shortwave extinction coefficient computed from retrieved cloud particle size distributions are half of the magnitudes of the fractional error in the estimated cloud particle median radius if the fractional error in the median radius is constant with height.
Kato, Seiji; Smith, G. Louis; Barker, Howard W.Kato, S., G. L. Smith, H. W. Barker, 2001: Gamma-Weighted Discrete Ordinate Two-Stream Approximation for Computation of Domain-Averaged Solar Irradiance. J. Atmos. Sci., 58(24), 3797-3803. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<3797:GWDOTS>2.0.CO;2. Abstract An algorithm is developed for the gamma-weighted discrete ordinate two-stream approximation that computes profiles of domain-averaged shortwave irradiances for horizontally inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres. The algorithm assumes that frequency distributions of cloud optical depth at unresolved scales can be represented by a gamma distribution though it neglects net horizontal transport of radiation. This algorithm is an alternative to the one used in earlier studies that adopted the adding method. At present, only overcast cloudy layers are permitted.
Liljegren, James C.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Mace, Gerald G.; Kato, Seiji; Dong, XiquanLiljegren, J. C., E. E. Clothiaux, G. G. Mace, S. Kato, X. Dong, 2001: A new retrieval for cloud liquid water path using a ground-based microwave radiometer and measurements of cloud temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D13), 14485-14500. doi: 10.1029/2000JD900817. A new method to retrieve cloud liquid water path using 23.8 and 31.4 GHz microwave radiometer brightness temperature measurements is developed. This method does not depend on climatological estimates of either the mean radiating temperature of the atmosphere Tmr or the mean cloud liquid water temperature Tcloud. Rather, Tmr is estimated from surface temperature and relative humidity measurements, while Tcloud is estimated using millimeter-wave cloud radar data, together with atmospheric temperature profiles obtained from either radiosonde or rapid update cycle (RUC) model output. Simulations demonstrate that the new retrieval method significantly reduces the biases in the liquid water path estimates that are apparent in a site-specific retrieval based on monthly stratified, local climatology. An analysis of the liquid water path estimates produced by the two retrievals over four case study days illustrates trends and retrieval performances consistent with the model simulations. 3360 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing; 0320 Cloud physics and chemistry; 3394 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Instruments and techniques; 0394 Instruments and techniques
Zhou, Y. P.; Rutledge, K. C.; Charlock, T. P.; Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.Zhou, Y. P., K. C. Rutledge, T. P. Charlock, N. G. Loeb, S. Kato, 2001: Atmospheric corrections using MODTRAN for TOA and surface BRDF characteristics from high resolution spectroradiometric/angular measurements from a helicopter platform. High-resolution spectral radiance measurements were taken by a spectral radiometer on board a helicopter over the US Oklahoma Southern Great Plain near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site during August 1998. The radiometer has a spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm at 1 nm resolution. The measurements covered several grass and cropland scene types at multiple solar zenith angles. Detailed atmospheric corrections using the Moderate Resolution Transmittance (MODTRAN) radiation model and in-situ sounding and aerosol measurements have been applied to the helicopter measurements in order to retrieve the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics. The atmospheric corrections are most significant in the visible wavelengths and in the strong water vapor absorption wavelengths in the near infrared region. Adjusting the BRDF to TOA requires a larger correction in the visible channels since Rayleigh scattering contributes significantly to the TOA reflectance. The opposite corrections to the visible and near infrarred wavelengths can alter the radiance difference and ratio that many remote sensing techniques are based on, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The data show that surface BRDFs and spectral albedos are highly sensitive to the vegetation type and solar zenith angle while BRDF at TOA depends more on atmospheric conditions and the vi ewing geometry. Comparison with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) derived clear sky Angular Distribution Model (ADM) for crop and grass scene type shows a standard deviation of 0.08 in broadband anisotropic function at 25 degrees solar zenith angle and 0.15 at 50 degrees solar zenith angle, respectively.


Kato, Seiji; Bergin, Michael H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Laulainen, Nels; Mace, Gerald G.; Michalsky, Joseph; Turner, David D.Kato, S., M. H. Bergin, T. P. Ackerman, T. P. Charlock, E. E. Clothiaux, R. A. Ferrare, R. N. Halthore, N. Laulainen, G. G. Mace, J. Michalsky, D. D. Turner, 2000: A comparison of the aerosol thickness derived from ground-based and airborne measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 105(D11), 14701-14717. doi: 10.1029/2000JD900013. The extinction optical thickness of particles obtained from scattering and absorption coefficients measured by an airborne integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer, respectively, is compared with the aerosol optical thickness derived from a ground-based multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a Sun photometer, and a Raman lidar for 9 days. These 9 days are selected from intensive operation periods of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement in April 1997, September 1997, and August 1998 at the southern Great Plains. For April 1997 and September 1997 cases the difference between the extinction optical thickness of particles estimated from vertical profiles and the extinction optical thickness of aerosol derived from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer is not significant. For August 1998 cases when the boundary layer relative humidity is higher than April 1997 and September 1997 cases, the extinction optical thickness of particles is 0.03 to 0.07 less than the extinction optical thickness of aerosol. The difference corresponds to 25% to 31% of the extinction optical thickness of aerosol. Based on these comparisons, the upper and lower limits of the single-scattering albedo of particles present in the lower part of troposphere are 0.97 and 0.84, respectively. 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes; 3360 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing; 0305 Aerosols and particles


Kato, S.; Ackerman, Thomas P; Mather, James H; Clothiaux, Eugene EKato, S., T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, E. E. Clothiaux, 1999: The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 62(1), 109-121. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4073(98)00075-2. Absorption cross sections are tabulated for water vapor, including continuum absorption, ozone, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the solar spectral region by adopting the k-distribution method. These tables are generated based on line-by-line code results for ranges of total pressure, temperature and water vapor concentration typical of values throughout the troposphere. These tables are incorporated into a shortwave radiative transfer code, which has 32 wavelength intervals across the solar spectrum, by using the correlated-k approximation in order to evaluate the accuracy in the broad band direct normal irradiance computation. A comparison of the direct normal irradiance with MODTRAN3 demonstrates that these tables can be used for shortwave broad band irradiance computations; the difference in the transmissivity is within 0.01 throughout most of the solar spectral region.
KATO, SEIJI; ACKERMAN, THOMAS P.; DUTTON, ELLSWORTH G.; LAULAINEN, NELS; LARSON, NELSKATO, S., T. P. ACKERMAN, E. G. DUTTON, N. LAULAINEN, N. LARSON, 1999: A COMPARISON OF MODELED AND MEASURED SURFACE SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE FOR A MOLECULAR ATMOSPHERE. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 61(4), 493-502. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4073(98)00032-6. We compare the downward diffuse and direct normal irradiance computed by a two-stream model with measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory when the atmosphere was close to a molecular atmosphere. The modeled downward diffuse irradiance agrees with measurements taken by a shaded pyranometer within the uncertainty of the measurement. Therefore, the two-stream approximation is adequate for computing the downward diffuse irradiance in a molecular atmosphere. This result also indicates that neglecting the state of polarization introduces a negligible error in the irradiance computation.


Boucher, O.; Schwartz, S. E.; Ackerman, T. P.; Anderson, T. L.; Bergstrom, B.; Bonnel, B.; Chýlek, P.; Dahlback, A.; Fouquart, Y.; Fu, Q.; Halthore, R. N.; Haywood, J. M.; Iversen, T.; Kato, S.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Knapp, K. R.; Lacis, A.; Laszlo, I.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Nemesure, S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Roberts, D. L.; Russell, P.; Schlesinger, M. E.; Stephens, G. L.; Wagener, R.; Wang, M.; Wong, J.; Yang, F.Boucher, O., S. E. Schwartz, T. P. Ackerman, T. L. Anderson, B. Bergstrom, B. Bonnel, P. Chýlek, A. Dahlback, Y. Fouquart, Q. Fu, R. N. Halthore, J. M. Haywood, T. Iversen, S. Kato, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, K. R. Knapp, A. Lacis, I. Laszlo, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Nemesure, V. Ramaswamy, D. L. Roberts, P. Russell, M. E. Schlesinger, G. L. Stephens, R. Wagener, M. Wang, J. Wong, F. Yang, 1998: Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 103(D14), 16979-16998. doi: 10.1029/98JD00997. The importance of aerosols as agents of climate change has recently been highlighted. However, the magnitude of aerosol forcing by scattering of shortwave radiation (direct forcing) is still very uncertain even for the relatively well characterized sulfate aerosol. A potential source of uncertainty is in the model representation of aerosol optical properties and aerosol influences on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. Although radiative transfer methods and codes have been compared in the past, these comparisons have not focused on aerosol forcing (change in net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere). Here we report results of a project involving 12 groups using 15 models to examine radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol for a wide range of values of particle radius, aerosol optical depth, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. Among the models that were employed were high and low spectral resolution models incorporating a variety of radiative transfer approximations as well as a line-by-line model. The normalized forcings (forcing per sulfate column burden) obtained with the several radiative transfer models were examined, and the discrepancies were characterized. All models simulate forcings of comparable amplitude and exhibit a similar dependence on input parameters. As expected for a non-light-absorbing aerosol, forcings were negative (cooling influence) except at high surface albedo combined with small solar zenith angle. The relative standard deviation of the zenith-angle-averaged normalized broadband forcing for 15 models was 8% for particle radius near the maximum in this forcing (∼0.2 μm) and at low surface albedo. Somewhat greater model-to-model discrepancies were exhibited at specific solar zenith angles. Still greater discrepancies were exhibited at small particle radii, and much greater discrepancies were exhibited at high surface albedos, at which the forcing changes sign; in these situations, however, the normalized forcing is quite small. Discrepancies among the models arise from inaccuracies in Mie calculations, differing treatment of the angular scattering phase function, differing wavelength and angular resolution, and differing treatment of multiple scattering. These results imply the need for standardized radiative transfer methods tailored to the direct aerosol forcing problem. However, the relatively small spread in these results suggests that the uncertainty in forcing arising from the treatment of radiative forcing of a well-characterized aerosol at well-specified surface albedo is smaller than some of the other sources of uncertainty in estimates of direct forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and anthropogenic aerosols generally. 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering; 1610 Atmosphere; 0305 Aerosols and particles


Kato, Seiji; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Mather, James H.; Mace, Gerald G.; Wesely, Marvin L.; Murcray, Frank; Michalsky, JosephKato, S., T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, 1997: Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D22), 25881-25898. doi: 10.1029/97JD01841. A comparison of five independent measurements of the clear-sky downward shortwave irradiance at the surface shows that they scatter within a 5% range depending on their calibration constants. When the measurements are corrected using data from two cavity radiometers, three of the five independent measurements agree within 3 W m−2 over three clear-sky days, which is well within the estimated error limit of ±1.5%. A comparison of these three sets of irradiance measurements with the computed irradiance by a δ2-stream model reveals that the model overestimates the irradiance by 5%. Detailed investigation of the approximations and uncertainties associated with the computations (including the measurement error in the water vapor and ozone amounts, neglecting the state of polarization and trace gas absorption, the 2-stream approximation, the neglect of the spectral dependence of the surface albedo, and the uncertainties associated with aerosols) demonstrates that the discrepancy is not due to these approximations. Further analysis of the modeled and measured irradiance shows that the discrepancy is almost entirely due to the difference between modeled and measured diffuse field irradiances. An analysis of narrow-band diffuse to total irradiance ratios shows that this discrepancy is the largest near 400 nm and decreases with wavelength. These results rely on the absolute calibrations of two cavity radiometers, two shaded pyranometers, and one unshaded pyranometer, as well as ratios of irradiances measured by a multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer. Therefore, in order for instrumental error to account for the diffuse field discrepancy, three independent measurements of the diffuse field irradiance must be biased low by at least 40%. For an aerosol to account for this discrepancy, it must be highly absorbing with a single-scattering albedo as low as 0.3. The unlikelihood of instrumental errors of 40% and aerosol single-scattering albedos of 0.3 suggests a third possibility: the neglect of some gaseous absorption process at visible wavelengths. 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes; 0360 Radiation: transmission and scattering